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(-) Description

Title :  CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE PRECURSOR FORM OF HUMAN TRIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE 1
 
Authors :  J. Guhaniyogi, I. Sohar, K. Das, P. Lobel, A. M. Stock
Date :  03 Sep 08  (Deposition) - 18 Nov 08  (Release) - 13 Jul 11  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  1.85
Chains :  Asym./Biol. Unit :  A
Keywords :  Protease, Tpp1, Sedolisin, Batten Disease, Lincl, Zymogen, Prodomain, Exopeptidase, Endopeptidase, S53 Family, Cln2, Catalytic Triad, Oxyanion Hole, Disease Mutation, Epilepsy, Glycoprotein, Hydrolase, Lysosome, Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Serine Protease (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  J. Guhaniyogi, I. Sohar, K. Das, A. M. Stock, P. Lobel
Crystal Structure And Autoactivation Pathway Of The Precursor Form Of Human Tripeptidyl-Peptidase 1, The Enzyme Deficient In Late Infantile Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
J. Biol. Chem. V. 284 3985 2009
PubMed-ID: 19038967  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1074/JBC.M806943200

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - TRIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE 1
    ChainsA
    EC Number3.4.14.9
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemCRICETULUS GRISEUS
    Expression System CellOVARY CELLS
    Expression System CommonCHINESE HAMSTER
    Expression System Taxid10029
    FragmentRESIDUES 20-563
    GeneTPP1, CLN2
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymTRIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE I, TPP-1, TPP-I, TRIPEPTIDYL AMINOPEPTIDASE, LYSOSOMAL PEPSTATIN- INSENSITIVE PROTEASE, LPIC, CELL GROWTH-INHIBITING GENE 1 PROTEIN

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  1
Asymmetric/Biological Unit A

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (3, 9)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (3, 9)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1CA1Ligand/IonCALCIUM ION
2EDO4Ligand/Ion1,2-ETHANEDIOL
3NAG4Ligand/IonN-ACETYL-D-GLUCOSAMINE

(-) Sites  (9, 9)

Asymmetric Unit (9, 9)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
1AC1SOFTWAREASP A:517 , VAL A:518 , GLY A:539 , GLY A:541 , ASP A:543 , HOH A:738BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE CA A 1
2AC2SOFTWAREARG A:208 , ASN A:210 , PHE A:516 , ASN A:552 , HOH A:898 , HOH A:899BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE NAG A 564
3AC3SOFTWAREGLU A:187 , PRO A:188 , GLY A:217 , SER A:218 , GLN A:254 , ASN A:286 , HOH A:791BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE NAG A 565
4AC4SOFTWAREHIS A:112 , SER A:113 , LEU A:310 , ASN A:313 , HOH A:781BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE NAG A 566
5AC5SOFTWAREASN A:414 , PRO A:417 , ASN A:443 , SER A:445 , HOH A:800 , HOH A:817 , HOH A:849BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE NAG A 567
6AC6SOFTWAREGLN A:66 , TYR A:384 , PRO A:419 , TYR A:421 , PHE A:502 , HOH A:776 , HOH A:780 , HOH A:820BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE EDO A 701
7AC7SOFTWAREGLU A:329 , ASP A:330 , LEU A:332 , VAL A:415 , HOH A:747 , HOH A:819 , HOH A:871BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE EDO A 702
8AC8SOFTWAREGLN A:373 , ASN A:414 , SER A:440 , TYR A:441 , PHE A:442 , ASN A:443 , HOH A:751 , HOH A:934BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE EDO A 703
9AC9SOFTWARETYR A:79 , HIS A:319 , ARG A:350 , GLY A:351 , PRO A:499BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE EDO A 704

(-) SS Bonds  (3, 3)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
No.Residues
1A:111 -A:122
2A:365 -A:526
3A:522 -A:537

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (3, 3)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
No.Residues
1Phe A:378 -Pro A:379
2Tyr A:449 -Pro A:450
3Asn A:562 -Pro A:563

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (41, 41)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (41, 41)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_037572S62LTPP1_HUMANPolymorphism2734715AS62L
02UniProtVAR_066883S62TTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AS62T
03UniProtVAR_009603G77RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908195AG77R
04UniProtVAR_009604Q100RTPP1_HUMANPolymorphism1800746AQ100R
05UniProtVAR_016790R127QTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908204AR127Q
06UniProtVAR_016791S153PTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AS153P
07UniProtVAR_005642R175HTPP1_HUMANPolymorphism764922748AR175H
08UniProtVAR_037573R185CTPP1_HUMANPolymorphism34758634AR185C
09UniProtVAR_063640P202LTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908205AP202L
10UniProtVAR_009605R206CTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)28940573AR206C
11UniProtVAR_016792R206HTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908209AR206H
12UniProtVAR_066884Y209HTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AY209H
13UniProtVAR_066885R266QTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)757953998AR266Q
14UniProtVAR_016793V277MTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908207AV277M
15UniProtVAR_016794Q278PTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AQ278P
16UniProtVAR_072749Q278RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)796053439AQ278R
17UniProtVAR_016795G284VTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)119455957AG284V
18UniProtVAR_016796N286STPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)119455958AN286S
19UniProtVAR_009606I287NTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908196AI287N
20UniProtVAR_066886R339QTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)765380155AR339Q
21UniProtVAR_009607E343KTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908197AE343K
22UniProtVAR_016797T353PTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908206AT353P
23UniProtVAR_005643C365RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)119455953AC365R
24UniProtVAR_005644C365YTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)119455954AC365Y
25UniProtVAR_066887S382RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AS382R
26UniProtVAR_009608V385DTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908198AV385D
27UniProtVAR_009609G389ETPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908199AG389E
28UniProtVAR_009610Q422HTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908200AQ422H
29UniProtVAR_016798K428NTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AK428N
30UniProtVAR_005645R447HTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)119455956AR447H
31UniProtVAR_066888A448VTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AA448V
32UniProtVAR_009611A454ETPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908201AA454E
33UniProtVAR_070917V466GTPP1_HUMANDisease (SCAR7)398122959AV466G
34UniProtVAR_016799G473RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908203AG473R
35UniProtVAR_009612S475LTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908202AS475L
36UniProtVAR_016800F481CTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AF481C
37UniProtVAR_058435G482RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908208AG482R
38UniProtVAR_066889G501CTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AG501C
39UniProtVAR_066890N504YTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AN504Y
40UniProtVAR_063641P544STPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)121908210AP544S
41UniProtVAR_066891W548RTPP1_HUMANDisease (CLN2)  ---AW548R

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (1, 1)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1SEDOLISINPS51695 Sedolisin domain profile.TPP1_HUMAN199-563  1A:199-563

(-) Exons   (12, 12)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (12, 12)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1aENST000002994271aENSE00001348942chr11:6640692-664061578TPP1_HUMAN1-660--
1.1iENST000002994271iENSE00001307417chr11:6640498-664042772TPP1_HUMAN6-30251A:20-3011
1.1nENST000002994271nENSE00001319244chr11:6640146-6640007140TPP1_HUMAN30-77481A:30-7748
1.2bENST000002994272bENSE00001102231chr11:6639007-6638857151TPP1_HUMAN77-127511A:77-12751
1.3bENST000002994273bENSE00001315022chr11:6638659-6638532128TPP1_HUMAN127-170441A:127-17044
1.3iENST000002994273iENSE00001102253chr11:6638384-6638206179TPP1_HUMAN170-229601A:170-22960
1.4bENST000002994274bENSE00001102240chr11:6638090-6637892199TPP1_HUMAN230-296671A:230-29667
1.5ENST000002994275ENSE00001102236chr11:6637734-6637546189TPP1_HUMAN296-359641A:296-35964
1.6bENST000002994276bENSE00001102252chr11:6637305-663723670TPP1_HUMAN359-382241A:359-38224
1.7bENST000002994277bENSE00001102248chr11:6636793-6636673121TPP1_HUMAN382-422411A:382-42241
1.7fENST000002994277fENSE00001102249chr11:6636560-6636402159TPP1_HUMAN423-475531A:423-47553
1.8ENST000002994278ENSE00001102238chr11:6636222-6636097126TPP1_HUMAN476-517421A:476-51742
1.9dENST000002994279dENSE00001826904chr11:6635917-66340001918TPP1_HUMAN518-563461A:518-56346

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:544
 aligned with TPP1_HUMAN | O14773 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:563

    Alignment length:544
                                    29        39        49        59        69        79        89        99       109       119       129       139       149       159       169       179       189       199       209       219       229       239       249       259       269       279       289       299       309       319       329       339       349       359       369       379       389       399       409       419       429       439       449       459       469       479       489       499       509       519       529       539       549       559    
           TPP1_HUMAN    20 SYSPEPDQRRTLPPGWVSLGRADPEEELSLTFALRQQNVERLSELVQAVSDPSSPQYGKYLTLENVADLVRPSPLTLHTVQKWLLAAGAQKCHSVITQDFLTCWLSIRQAELLLPGAEFHHYVGGPTETHVVRSPHPYQLPQALAPHVDFVGGLHRFPPTSSLRQRPEPQVTGTVGLHLGVTPSVIRKRYNLTSQDVGSGTSNNSQACAQFLEQYFHDSDLAQFMRLFGGNFAHQASVARVVGQQGRGRAGIEASLDVQYLMSAGANISTWVYSSPGRHEGQEPFLQWLMLLSNESALPHVHTVSYGDDEDSLSSAYIQRVNTELMKAAARGLTLLFASGDSGAGCWSVSGRHQFRPTFPASSPYVTTVGGTSFQEPFLITNEIVDYISGGGFSNVFPRPSYQEEAVTKFLSSSPHLPPSSYFNASGRAYPDVAALSDGYWVVSNRVPIPWVSGTSASTPVFGGILSLINEHRILSGRPPLGFLNPRLYQQHGAGLFDVTRGCHESCLDEEVEGQGFCSGPGWDPVTGWGTPNFPALLKTLLNP 563
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...............eeeeee.....eeeeeeee...hhhhhhhhhhhhhh..........hhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.eeeee.....eeeeeeehhhhhhhh.....eeeee....eeeee.......hhhhh..eeee..............................hhhhhhhhh..............eeeeee......hhhhhhhhhhhhh..........eee........hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...eeeee.........hhhhhhhhhhh.......eeeee..ee.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..eeeee........eee..eee...ee.......eeeeeeee........eee......eeeeeee.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh....hhhhh...eeee..eeee...eeeee..eeeeee.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.......hhhhhhhh....ee.....eee.........eeee............eehhhhhhhh.... Sec.struct. author
             SAPs(SNPs) (1) ------------------------------------------L--------------R----------------------R--------------------------Q-------------------------P---------------------H---------C----------------L---C--H--------------------------------------------------------Q----------MP-----V-SN---------------------------------------------------Q---K---------P-----------R----------------R--D---E--------------------------------H-----N------------------HV-----E-----------G------R-L-----CR------------------C--Y---------------------------------------S---R--------------- SAPs(SNPs) (1)
             SAPs(SNPs) (2) ------------------------------------------T-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------H-----------------------------------------------------------------------R--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Y------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SAPs(SNPs) (2)
                    PROSITE -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SEDOLISIN  PDB: A:199-563 UniProt: 199-563                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.1i  ----------------------------------------------Exon 1.2b  PDB: A:77-127 UniProt: 77-127           ------------------------------------------Exon 1.3i  PDB: A:170-229 UniProt: 170-229                  Exon 1.4b  PDB: A:230-296 UniProt: 230-296                         --------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.6b  PDB: A:359-38----------------------------------------Exon 1.7f  PDB: A:423-475 UniProt: 423-475           Exon 1.8  PDB: A:476-517 UniProt: 476-517 Exon 1.9d  PDB: A:518-563 UniProt: 518-563     Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) ----------Exon 1.1n  PDB: A:30-77 UniProt: 30-77          -------------------------------------------------Exon 1.3b  PDB: A:127-170 UniProt: 127-170  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.5  PDB: A:296-359 UniProt: 296-359                       ----------------------Exon 1.7b  PDB: A:382-422                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                 3edy A  20 SYSPEPDQRRTLPPGWVSLGRADPEEELSLTFALRQQNVERLSELVQAVSDPSSPQYGKYLTLENVADLVRPSPLTLHTVQKWLLAAGAQKCHSVITQDFLTCWLSIRQAELLLPGAEFHHYVGGPTETHVVRSPHPYQLPQALAPHVDFVGGLHRFPPTSSLRQRPEPQVTGTVGLHLGVTPSVIRKRYNLTSQDVGSGTSNNSQACAQFLEQYFHDSDLAQFMRLFGGNFAHQASVARVVGQQGRGRAGIEASLDVQYLMSAGANISTWVYSSPGRHEGQEPFLQWLMLLSNESALPHVHTVSYGDDEDSLSSAYIQRVNTELMKAAARGLTLLFASGDSGAGCWSVSGRHQFRPTFPASSPYVTTVGGTSFQEPFLITNEIVDYISGGGFSNVFPRPSYQEEAVTKFLSSSPHLPPSSYFNASGRAYPDVAALSDGYWVVSNRVPIPWVSGTSASTPVFGGILSLINEHRILSGRPPLGFLNPRLYQQHGAGLFDVTRGCHESCLDEEVEGQGFCSGPGWDPVTGWGTPNFPALLKTLLNP 563
                                    29        39        49        59        69        79        89        99       109       119       129       139       149       159       169       179       189       199       209       219       229       239       249       259       269       279       289       299       309       319       329       339       349       359       369       379       389       399       409       419       429       439       449       459       469       479       489       499       509       519       529       539       549       559    

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (0, 0)

(no "SCOP Domain" information available for 3EDY)

(-) CATH Domains  (0, 0)

(no "CATH Domain" information available for 3EDY)

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 3EDY)

(-) Gene Ontology  (25, 25)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (TPP1_HUMAN | O14773)
molecular function
    GO:0004175    endopeptidase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain.
    GO:0016787    hydrolase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e.g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
    GO:0046872    metal ion binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any metal ion.
    GO:0008233    peptidase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond. A peptide bond is a covalent bond formed when the carbon atom from the carboxyl group of one amino acid shares electrons with the nitrogen atom from the amino group of a second amino acid.
    GO:0042277    peptide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with peptides, any of a group of organic compounds comprising two or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0004252    serine-type endopeptidase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of internal, alpha-peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a catalytic mechanism that involves a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile that is activated by a proton relay involving an acidic residue (e.g. aspartate or glutamate) and a basic residue (usually histidine).
    GO:0008236    serine-type peptidase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain by a catalytic mechanism that involves a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile that is activated by a proton relay involving an acidic residue (e.g. aspartate or glutamate) and a basic residue (usually histidine).
    GO:0008240    tripeptidyl-peptidase activity    Catalysis of the release of an N-terminal tripeptide from a polypeptide.
biological process
    GO:0036498    IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response    A series of molecular signals mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor IRE1 (Inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease). Begins with activation of IRE1 in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. One target of activated IRE1 is the transcription factor HAC1 in yeast, or XBP1 in mammals; IRE1 cleaves an intron of a mRNA coding for HAC1/XBP1 to generate an activated HAC1/XBP1 transcription factor, which controls the up regulation of UPR-related genes. At least in mammals, IRE1 can also signal through additional intracellular pathways including JNK and NF-kappaB.
    GO:0045453    bone resorption    The process in which specialized cells known as osteoclasts degrade the organic and inorganic portions of bone, and endocytose and transport the degradation products.
    GO:0007417    central nervous system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the central nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.
    GO:0030855    epithelial cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell, any of the cells making up an epithelium.
    GO:0006629    lipid metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
    GO:0007040    lysosome organization    A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a lysosome. A lysosome is a cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded organelle that is found in most animal cells and that contains a variety of hydrolases.
    GO:0007399    nervous system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.
    GO:0050885    neuromuscular process controlling balance    Any process that an organism uses to control its balance, the orientation of the organism (or the head of the organism) in relation to the source of gravity. In humans and animals, balance is perceived through visual cues, the labyrinth system of the inner ears and information from skin pressure receptors and muscle and joint receptors.
    GO:0043171    peptide catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of peptides, compounds of 2 or more (but usually less than 100) amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another.
    GO:0030163    protein catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
    GO:0006508    proteolysis    The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds.
cellular component
    GO:0070062    extracellular exosome    A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
    GO:0043202    lysosomal lumen    The volume enclosed within the lysosomal membrane.
    GO:0005764    lysosome    A small lytic vacuole that has cell cycle-independent morphology and is found in most animal cells and that contains a variety of hydrolases, most of which have their maximal activities in the pH range 5-6. The contained enzymes display latency if properly isolated. About 40 different lysosomal hydrolases are known and lysosomes have a great variety of morphologies and functions.
    GO:0042470    melanosome    A tissue-specific, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle within which melanin pigments are synthesized and stored. Melanosomes are synthesized in melanocyte cells.
    GO:0005739    mitochondrion    A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.

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        TPP1_HUMAN | O147731r60 3ee6

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