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(-) Description

Title :  CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF AKT-1 COMPLEXED WITH SUBSTRATE PEPTIDE AND INHIBITOR
 
Authors :  J. Pandit
Date :  03 Apr 08  (Deposition) - 27 May 08  (Release) - 24 Feb 09  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.00
Chains :  Asym./Biol. Unit :  A,C
Keywords :  Kinase, Apoptosis, Atp-Binding, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Cytoplasm, Glucose Metabolism, Glycogen Biosynthesis, Glycogen Metabolism, Membrane, Nucleotide-Binding, Nucleus, Phosphoprotein, Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase, Sugar Transport, Transferase, Translation Regulation, Transport, Alternative Splicing, Wnt Signaling Pathway (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  B. Lippa, G. Pan, M. Corbett, C. Li, G. S. Kauffman, J. Pandit, S. Robinson, L. Wei, E. Kozina, E. S. Marr, G. Borzillo, E. Knauth, E. G. Barbacci-Tobin, P. Vincent, M. Troutman, D. Baker, F. Rajamohan, S. Kakar, T. Clark, J. Morris
Synthesis And Structure Based Optimization Of Novel Akt Inhibitors
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. V. 18 3359 2008
PubMed-ID: 18456494  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1016/J.BMCL.2008.04.034
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - RAC-ALPHA SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE
    ChainsA
    EC Number2.7.11.1
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemSPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA
    Expression System CommonFALL ARMYWORM
    Expression System StrainSF9
    Expression System Vector TypeBACULOVIRUS
    FragmentKINASE AND AGC-KINASE C-TERMINAL DOMAINS
    GeneAKT1, PKB, RAC
    MutationYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    SynonymRAC-PK-ALPHA, PROTEIN KINASE B, PKB, C-AKT
 
Molecule 2 - GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 BETA
    ChainsC
    EC Number2.7.11.26
    EngineeredYES
    FragmentRESIDUES 3-12
    Other DetailsTHE PEPTIDE IS NATURALLY FOUND IN HOMO SAPIENS.
    SynonymGSK-3 BETA
    SyntheticYES

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12
Asymmetric/Biological Unit AC

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (3, 3)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (3, 3)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1CQW1Ligand/Ion5-(5-CHLORO-7H-PYRROLO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDIN-4-YL)-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO-1H-IMIDAZO[4,5-C]PYRIDINE
2MN1Ligand/IonMANGANESE (II) ION
3TPO1Mod. Amino AcidPHOSPHOTHREONINE

(-) Sites  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
1AC1SOFTWAREGLU A:314 , HIS A:354BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE MN A 1
2AC2SOFTWAREALA A:177 , THR A:211 , MET A:227 , GLU A:228 , ALA A:230 , GLU A:234 , GLU A:278 , ASN A:279 , MET A:281 , THR A:291 , ASP A:292BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE CQW A 999

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 3CQW)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 3CQW)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (2, 2)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (2, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_051617V167AAKT1_HUMANPolymorphism11555433AV167A
2UniProtVAR_069792T435PAKT1_HUMANDisease (CWS6)397514645AT435P

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (3, 3)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (3, 3)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1PROTEIN_KINASE_ATPPS00107 Protein kinases ATP-binding region signature.AKT1_HUMAN156-189  1A:156-189
2PROTEIN_KINASE_STPS00108 Serine/Threonine protein kinases active-site signature.AKT1_HUMAN270-282  1A:270-282
3AGC_KINASE_CTERPS51285 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain profile.AKT1_HUMAN409-480  1A:409-477

(-) Exons   (11, 11)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (11, 11)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1aENST000002642351aENSE00001206838chr3:119813264-1198121941071GSK3B_HUMAN1-30301C:1-1010
1.2ENST000002642352ENSE00001206832chr3:119721086-119720893194GSK3B_HUMAN30-94650--
1.3ENST000002642353ENSE00001076166chr3:119666198-11966611584GSK3B_HUMAN95-122280--
1.4ENST000002642354ENSE00001012216chr3:119642330-119642220111GSK3B_HUMAN123-159370--
1.5ENST000002642355ENSE00001012214chr3:119635021-119634891131GSK3B_HUMAN160-203440--
1.6ENST000002642356ENSE00001012215chr3:119631657-119631551107GSK3B_HUMAN203-239370--
1.7ENST000002642357ENSE00000823656chr3:119624699-11962460298GSK3B_HUMAN239-271330--
1.8ENST000002642358ENSE00001012184chr3:119595355-11959526096GSK3B_HUMAN272-303320--
1.10ENST0000026423510ENSE00001012181chr3:119582452-119582266187GSK3B_HUMAN304-366630--
1.11bENST0000026423511bENSE00001149998chr3:119562200-11956210299GSK3B_HUMAN366-399340--
1.12dENST0000026423512dENSE00001863284chr3:119545702-1195401705533GSK3B_HUMAN399-420220--

2.1ENST000003493101ENSE00001026413chr14:105262080-105261821260AKT1_HUMAN-00--
2.2bENST000003493102bENSE00001184402chr14:105259547-10525946484AKT1_HUMAN-00--
2.3ENST000003493103ENSE00001394660chr14:105259059-105258935125AKT1_HUMAN1-16160--
2.4ENST000003493104ENSE00001026414chr14:105246553-105246425129AKT1_HUMAN16-59440--
2.5ENST000003493105ENSE00001720681chr14:105243107-105242996112AKT1_HUMAN59-96380--
2.6ENST000003493106ENSE00000952908chr14:105242136-105241989148AKT1_HUMAN96-145501A:144-1452
2.7ENST000003493107ENSE00001680218chr14:105241544-105241413132AKT1_HUMAN146-189441A:146-18944
2.8ENST000003493108ENSE00000952910chr14:105241340-10524127566AKT1_HUMAN190-211221A:190-21122
2.9ENST000003493109ENSE00001614411chr14:105240317-10524024969AKT1_HUMAN212-234231A:212-23423
2.10ENST0000034931010ENSE00001296816chr14:105239917-105239792126AKT1_HUMAN235-276421A:235-27642
2.11ENST0000034931011ENSE00001596102chr14:105239716-105239588129AKT1_HUMAN277-319431A:277-31943
2.12ENST0000034931012ENSE00001607654chr14:105239429-105239215215AKT1_HUMAN320-391721A:320-39172
2.13ENST0000034931013ENSE00000952915chr14:105238789-10523870288AKT1_HUMAN391-420301A:391-42030
2.14ENST0000034931014ENSE00000952916chr14:105237184-105237082103AKT1_HUMAN421-455351A:421-44727
2.15ENST0000034931015ENSE00001396509chr14:105236757-1052356891069AKT1_HUMAN455-480261A:464-47815

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:319
 aligned with AKT1_HUMAN | P31749 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:480

    Alignment length:335
                                   153       163       173       183       193       203       213       223       233       243       253       263       273       283       293       303       313       323       333       343       353       363       373       383       393       403       413       423       433       443       453       463       473     
           AKT1_HUMAN   144 RVTMNEFEYLKLLGKGTFGKVILVKEKATGRYYAMKILKKEVIVAKDEVAHTLTENRVLQNSRHPFLTALKYSFQTHDRLCFVMEYANGGELFFHLSRERVFSEDRARFYGAEIVSALDYLHSEKNVVYRDLKLENLMLDKDGHIKITDFGLCKEGIKDGATMKTFCGTPEYLAPEVLEDNDYGRAVDWWGLGVVMYEMMCGRLPFYNQDHEKLFELILMEEIRFPRTLGPEAKSLLSGLLKKDPKQRLGGGSEDAKEIMQHRFFAGIVWQHVYEKKLSPPFKPQVTSETDTRYFDEEFTAQMITITPPDQDDSMECVDSERRPHFPQFSYSASG 478
               SCOP domains d3cqwa_ A: automated matches                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SCOP domains
               CATH domains 3cqwA01 A:144-233,A:429-472 Phosphorylase Kinase; domain 1                                3cqwA02 A:234-428 Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1                                                                                                                                         3cqwA01 A:144-233,A                :429-472 ------ CATH domains
               Pfam domains ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ..hhh.eeeeeeeee...eeeeeeee.....eeeeeeeehhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.......eeeeee...eeeeee......hhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh........hhh.eee.....eee...................eehhhhhhhhhhh......hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.......hhhhhhhhhhhh........hhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhh......hhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhhh....................hhhhhh...----------------..........ee... Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) -----------------------A---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ------------PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP  PDB: A:156-189--------------------------------------------------------------------------------PROTEIN_KINAS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AGC_KINASE_CTER  PDB: A:409-477 UniProt: 409-480                       PROSITE
           Transcript 2 (1) 2.Exon 2.7  PDB: A:146-189 UniProt: 146-189   Exon 2.8              Exon 2.9  PDB: A:212-23Exon 2.10  PDB: A:235-276 UniProt: 235-276Exon 2.11  PDB: A:277-319 UniProt: 277-319 Exon 2.12  PDB: A:320-391 UniProt: 320-391                              -----------------------------Exon 2.14  PDB: A:421-447          ----------------------- Transcript 2 (1)
           Transcript 2 (2) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 2.13  PDB: A:391-420     ----------------------------------Exon 2.15  PDB: A:464-47 Transcript 2 (2)
                 3cqw A 144 RVTMNEFEYLKLLGKGTFGKVILVKEKATGRYYAMKILKKEVIVAKDEVAHTLTENRVLQNSRHPFLTALKYSFQTHDRLCFVMEYANGGELFFHLSRERVFSEDRARFYGAEIVSALDYLHSEKNVVYRDLKLENLMLDKDGHIKITDFGLCKEGIKDGATMKtFCGTPEYLAPEVLEDNDYGRAVDWWGLGVVMYEMMCGRLPFYNQDHEKLFELILMEEIRFPRTLGPEAKSLLSGLLKKDPKQRLGGGSEDAKEIMQHRFFAGIVWQHVYEKKLSPPFKPQVTSETDTRYFDEEFTAQMI----------------ERRPHFPQFDYSASS 478
                                   153       163       173       183       193       203       213       223       233       243       253       263       273       283       293       303    |  313       323       333       343       353       363       373       383       393       403       413       423       433       443   |     -         -|      473     
                                                                                                                                                                                              308-TPO                                                                                                                                    447              464              

Chain C from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:10
 aligned with GSK3B_HUMAN | P49841 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:420

    Alignment length:10
                                    12
          GSK3B_HUMAN     3 GRPRTTSFAE  12
               SCOP domains ---------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author .......ee. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ---------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.1a  Transcript 1
                 3cqw C   1 GRPRTTSFAE  10
                                    10

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (2, 2)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
(-)
Class: Alpha Beta (26913)

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 3CQW)

(-) Gene Ontology  (271, 307)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (AKT1_HUMAN | P31749)
molecular function
    GO:0071889    14-3-3 protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a 14-3-3 protein. A 14-3-3 protein is any of a large family of approximately 30kDa acidic proteins which exist primarily as homo- and heterodimers within all eukaryotic cells, and have been implicated in the modulation of distinct biological processes by binding to specific phosphorylated sites on diverse target proteins, thereby forcing conformational changes or influencing interactions between their targets and other molecules. Each 14-3-3 protein sequence can be roughly divided into three sections: a divergent amino terminus, the conserved core region and a divergent carboxyl terminus. The conserved middle core region of the 14-3-3s encodes an amphipathic groove that forms the main functional domain, a cradle for interacting with client proteins.
    GO:0005524    ATP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
    GO:0032794    GTPase activating protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a GTPase activating protein.
    GO:0019899    enzyme binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any enzyme.
    GO:0042802    identical protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
    GO:0016301    kinase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.
    GO:0030235    nitric-oxide synthase regulator activity    Modulates the activity of nitric oxide synthase.
    GO:0000166    nucleotide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose or deoxyribose.
    GO:0005547    phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, a derivative of phosphatidylinositol in which the inositol ring is phosphorylated at the 3', 4' and 5' positions.
    GO:0043325    phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, a derivative of phosphatidylinositol in which the inositol ring is phosphorylated at the 3' and 4' positions.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0005080    protein kinase C binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with protein kinase C.
    GO:0004672    protein kinase activity    Catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP.
    GO:0019901    protein kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a protein substrate.
    GO:0051721    protein phosphatase 2A binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the enzyme protein phosphatase 2A.
    GO:0004674    protein serine/threonine kinase activity    Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.
    GO:0004712    protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity    Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + a protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate; ATP + a protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate; and ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + protein tyrosine phosphate.
    GO:0016740    transferase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
biological process
    GO:0038128    ERBB2 signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptors on the surface of a cell, where the signal is transmitted by ERBB2. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. ERBB2 receptors are themselves unable to bind to ligands, but act as a signal-amplifying tyrosine kinase within a heterodimeric pair.
    GO:0007186    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The pathway can start from the plasma membrane, Golgi or nuclear membrane (PMID:24568158 and PMID:16902576).
    GO:0031295    T cell costimulation    The process of providing, via surface-bound receptor-ligand pairs, a second, antigen-independent, signal in addition to that provided by the T cell receptor to augment T cell activation.
    GO:0006924    activation-induced cell death of T cells    A T cell apoptotic process that occurs towards the end of the expansion phase following the initial activation of mature T cells by antigen and is triggered by T cell receptor stimulation and signals transmitted via various surface-expressed members of the TNF receptor family such as Fas ligand, Fas, and TNF and the p55 and p75 TNF receptors.
    GO:0007568    aging    A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).
    GO:0008637    apoptotic mitochondrial changes    The morphological and physiological alterations undergone by mitochondria during apoptosis.
    GO:0006915    apoptotic process    A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an execution phase. The execution phase is the last step of an apoptotic process, and is typically characterized by rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.
    GO:0005975    carbohydrate metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule.
    GO:0008643    carbohydrate transport    The directed movement of carbohydrate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carbohydrates are any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
    GO:0030154    cell differentiation    The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state.
    GO:0030030    cell projection organization    A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
    GO:0008283    cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
    GO:0006464    cellular protein modification process    The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications) occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).
    GO:0006974    cellular response to DNA damage stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.
    GO:0036294    cellular response to decreased oxygen levels    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus reflecting a decline in the level of oxygen.
    GO:0071364    cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an epidermal growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0097011    cellular response to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus.
    GO:0071363    cellular response to growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0071456    cellular response to hypoxia    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
    GO:0032869    cellular response to insulin stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:0071260    cellular response to mechanical stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a mechanical stimulus.
    GO:1990090    cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus    A process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nerve growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0071407    cellular response to organic cyclic compound    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.
    GO:1901653    cellular response to peptide    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a peptide stimulus.
    GO:0071380    cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a prostagladin E stimulus.
    GO:0035924    cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0099565    chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic    The part of synaptic transmission occurring in the post-synapse: a signal transduction pathway consisting of neurotransmitter receptor activation and its effects on postsynaptic membrane potential and the ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol.
    GO:0031018    endocrine pancreas development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endocrine pancreas over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endocrine pancreas is made up of islet cells that produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin.
    GO:0072655    establishment of protein localization to mitochondrion    The directed movement of a protein to the mitochondrion or a part of the mitochondrion.
    GO:0097194    execution phase of apoptosis    A stage of the apoptotic process that starts with the controlled breakdown of the cell through the action of effector caspases or other effector molecules (e.g. cathepsins, calpains etc.). Key steps of the execution phase are rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.
    GO:0007281    germ cell development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an immature germ cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure (gamete). A germ cell is any reproductive cell in a multicellular organism.
    GO:0042593    glucose homeostasis    Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of glucose within an organism or cell.
    GO:0006006    glucose metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose. D-glucose is dextrorotatory and is sometimes known as dextrose; it is an important source of energy for living organisms and is found free as well as combined in homo- and hetero-oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
    GO:0015758    glucose transport    The directed movement of the hexose monosaccharide glucose into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
    GO:0005978    glycogen biosynthetic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycogen, a polydisperse, highly branched glucan composed of chains of D-glucose residues.
    GO:0060709    glycogen cell differentiation involved in embryonic placenta development    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a glycogen cell of the placenta. A glycogen cell is a vacuolated glycogen-rich cell that appears in compact cell islets of the spongiotrophoblast layer.
    GO:0005977    glycogen metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycogen, a polydisperse, highly branched glucan composed of chains of D-glucose residues in alpha-(1->4) glycosidic linkage, joined together by alpha-(1->6) glycosidic linkages.
    GO:0030212    hyaluronan metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving hyaluronan, the naturally occurring anionic form of hyaluronic acid, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans, the repeat units of which consist of beta-1,4 linked D-glucuronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
    GO:0006954    inflammatory response    The immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The process is characterized by local vasodilation, extravasation of plasma into intercellular spaces and accumulation of white blood cells and macrophages.
    GO:0008286    insulin receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the insulin receptor binding to insulin.
    GO:0048009    insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the insulin-like growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
    GO:0035556    intracellular signal transduction    The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell.
    GO:0060716    labyrinthine layer blood vessel development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel of the labyrinthine layer of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The embryonic vessels grow through the layer to come in close contact with the maternal blood supply.
    GO:0031663    lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to a receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. Lipopolysaccharides are major components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, making them prime targets for recognition by the immune system.
    GO:0072656    maintenance of protein location in mitochondrion    Any process in which a protein is maintained in a specific location in a mitochondrion, and is prevented from moving elsewhere.
    GO:0060644    mammary gland epithelial cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized epithelial cell becomes a more specialized epithelial cell of the mammary gland.
    GO:0001893    maternal placenta development    Maternally driven process whose specific outcome is the progression of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The placenta is an organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin.
    GO:0007275    multicellular organism development    The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
    GO:0046329    negative regulation of JNK cascade    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the JNK cascade.
    GO:0043066    negative regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0010507    negative regulation of autophagy    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of autophagy. Autophagy is the process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm.
    GO:0045792    negative regulation of cell size    Any process that reduces cell size.
    GO:0043154    negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in the apoptotic process.
    GO:0010951    negative regulation of endopeptidase activity    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of endopeptidase activity, the endohydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
    GO:2001240    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand.
    GO:0031999    negative regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fatty acid beta-oxidation.
    GO:0010629    negative regulation of gene expression    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:1901215    negative regulation of neuron death    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron death.
    GO:1902176    negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
    GO:0010748    negative regulation of plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport. Plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport is the directed movement of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane.
    GO:0006469    negative regulation of protein kinase activity    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase activity.
    GO:0100002    negative regulation of protein kinase activity by protein phosphorylation    Any protein phosphorylation process that negatively_regulates protein kinase activity
    GO:0045861    negative regulation of proteolysis    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond or bonds within a protein.
    GO:0090201    negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the process in which cytochrome c is enabled to move from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol, which is an early step in apoptosis and leads to caspase activation.
    GO:0007399    nervous system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.
    GO:0006809    nitric oxide biosynthetic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nitric oxide, nitrogen monoxide (NO), a colorless gas only slightly soluble in water.
    GO:0001649    osteoblast differentiation    The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an osteoblast, a mesodermal or neural crest cell that gives rise to bone.
    GO:0018105    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
    GO:0018107    peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
    GO:0032287    peripheral nervous system myelin maintenance    The process in which the structure and material content of mature peripheral nervous system myelin is kept in a functional state.
    GO:0048015    phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling    A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses a phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling to convert a signal into a response. Phosphatidylinositols include phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and its phosphorylated derivatives.
    GO:0016310    phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.
    GO:0030168    platelet activation    A series of progressive, overlapping events triggered by exposure of the platelets to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
    GO:0043065    positive regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0043536    positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the migration of the endothelial cells of blood vessels.
    GO:0030307    positive regulation of cell growth    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.
    GO:0032270    positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.
    GO:0031659    positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity contributing to the G1/S transition of the cell cycle.
    GO:0032079    positive regulation of endodeoxyribonuclease activity    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endodeoxyribonuclease activity, the hydrolysis of ester linkages within deoxyribonucleic acid by creating internal breaks.
    GO:0001938    positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.
    GO:0045742    positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway activity.
    GO:0090004    positive regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a protein to a specific location in the plasma membrane.
    GO:0045600    positive regulation of fat cell differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.
    GO:0010763    positive regulation of fibroblast migration    Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of fibroblast cell migration. Fibroblast cell migration is accomplished by extension and retraction of a pseudopodium.
    GO:0046326    positive regulation of glucose import    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the import of the hexose monosaccharide glucose into a cell or organelle.
    GO:0010907    positive regulation of glucose metabolic process    Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of glucose metabolism. Glucose metabolic processes are the chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose.
    GO:0045725    positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycogen.
    GO:0046889    positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lipids.
    GO:0045429    positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nitric oxide.
    GO:0051000    positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity    Any process that activates or increases the activity of the enzyme nitric-oxide synthase.
    GO:0033138    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
    GO:0032436    positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
    GO:1900182    positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
    GO:0001934    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
    GO:0051091    positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activity of a transcription factor, any factor involved in the initiation or regulation of transcription.
    GO:0010765    positive regulation of sodium ion transport    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of sodium ions (Na+) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0045907    positive regulation of vasoconstriction    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of vasoconstriction.
    GO:0046777    protein autophosphorylation    The phosphorylation by a protein of one or more of its own amino acid residues (cis-autophosphorylation), or residues on an identical protein (trans-autophosphorylation).
    GO:0030163    protein catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
    GO:0000060    protein import into nucleus, translocation    A protein transport process that contributes to protein import into the nucleus, and that results in the vectorial transfer of a cargo-carrier protein complex through the nuclear pore complex from the cytoplasmic side to the nucleoplasmic side of the nuclear envelope.
    GO:0043491    protein kinase B signaling    A series of reactions, mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (also called AKT), which occurs as a result of a single trigger reaction or compound.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0016567    protein ubiquitination    The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
    GO:1901976    regulation of cell cycle checkpoint    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell cycle checkpoint.
    GO:0030334    regulation of cell migration    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.
    GO:0005979    regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycogen.
    GO:0043488    regulation of mRNA stability    Any process that modulates the propensity of mRNA molecules to degradation. Includes processes that both stabilize and destabilize mRNAs.
    GO:0031641    regulation of myelination    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation of a myelin sheath around nerve axons.
    GO:0010975    regulation of neuron projection development    Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of neuron projection development. Neuron projection development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).
    GO:0050999    regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity    Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme nitric-oxide synthase.
    GO:0014066    regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade.
    GO:0032880    regulation of protein localization    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of any process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.
    GO:1901796    regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction by p53 class mediator.
    GO:0006417    regulation of translation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA or circRNA.
    GO:0070141    response to UV-A    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a UV-A radiation stimulus. UV-A radiation (UV-A light) spans the wavelengths 315 to 400 nm.
    GO:0034405    response to fluid shear stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fluid shear stress stimulus. Fluid shear stress is the force acting on an object in a system where the fluid is moving across a solid surface.
    GO:0032094    response to food    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a food stimulus; food is anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat.
    GO:0060416    response to growth hormone    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth hormone stimulus. Growth hormone is a peptide hormone that binds to the growth hormone receptor and stimulates growth.
    GO:0009408    response to heat    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a heat stimulus, a temperature stimulus above the optimal temperature for that organism.
    GO:0009725    response to hormone    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hormone stimulus.
    GO:1990418    response to insulin-like growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin-like growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0010033    response to organic substance    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.
    GO:0006979    response to oxidative stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
    GO:0007165    signal transduction    The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
    GO:0021510    spinal cord development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the spinal cord over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The spinal cord primarily conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses between the brain and the peripheral nervous tissues.
    GO:0051146    striated muscle cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a striated muscle cell; striated muscle fibers are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and voluntary muscle are types of striated muscle.
    GO:0006412    translation    The cellular metabolic process in which a protein is formed, using the sequence of a mature mRNA or circRNA molecule to specify the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. Translation is mediated by the ribosome, and begins with the formation of a ternary complex between aminoacylated initiator methionine tRNA, GTP, and initiation factor 2, which subsequently associates with the small subunit of the ribosome and an mRNA or circRNA. Translation ends with the release of a polypeptide chain from the ribosome.
    GO:0006810    transport    The directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) or cellular components (such as complexes and organelles) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, or within a multicellular organism by means of some agent such as a transporter, pore or motor protein.
cellular component
    GO:0005911    cell-cell junction    A cell junction that forms a connection between two or more cells in a multicellular organism; excludes direct cytoplasmic junctions such as ring canals.
    GO:0036064    ciliary basal body    A membrane-tethered, short cylindrical array of microtubules and associated proteins found at the base of a eukaryotic cilium (also called flagellum) that is similar in structure to a centriole and derives from it. The cilium basal body is the site of assembly and remodelling of the cilium and serves as a nucleation site for axoneme growth. As well as anchoring the cilium, it is thought to provide a selective gateway regulating the entry of ciliary proteins and vesicles by intraflagellar transport.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0015630    microtubule cytoskeleton    The part of the cytoskeleton (the internal framework of a cell) composed of microtubules and associated proteins.
    GO:0005739    mitochondrion    A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
    GO:0005654    nucleoplasm    That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0098794    postsynapse    The part of a synapse that is part of the post-synaptic cell.
    GO:0043234    protein complex    A stable macromolecular complex composed (only) of two or more polypeptide subunits along with any covalently attached molecules (such as lipid anchors or oligosaccharide) or non-protein prosthetic groups (such as nucleotides or metal ions). Prosthetic group in this context refers to a tightly bound cofactor. The component polypeptide subunits may be identical.
    GO:0005819    spindle    The array of microtubules and associated molecules that forms between opposite poles of a eukaryotic cell during mitosis or meiosis and serves to move the duplicated chromosomes apart.
    GO:0031982    vesicle    Any small, fluid-filled, spherical organelle enclosed by membrane.

Chain C   (GSK3B_HUMAN | P49841)
molecular function
    GO:0005524    ATP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
    GO:0051059    NF-kappaB binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with NF-kappaB, a transcription factor for eukaryotic RNA polymerase II promoters.
    GO:0001085    RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an RNA polymerase II transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription by RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0008013    beta-catenin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the beta subunit of the catenin complex.
    GO:0005178    integrin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an integrin.
    GO:0035255    ionotropic glutamate receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an ionotropic glutamate receptor. Ionotropic glutamate receptors bind glutamate and exert an effect through the regulation of ion channels.
    GO:0016301    kinase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.
    GO:0000166    nucleotide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose or deoxyribose.
    GO:0002039    p53 binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one of the p53 family of proteins.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0034236    protein kinase A catalytic subunit binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or both of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A.
    GO:0004672    protein kinase activity    Catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP.
    GO:0019901    protein kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a protein substrate.
    GO:0004674    protein serine/threonine kinase activity    Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.
    GO:0048156    tau protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with tau protein. tau is a microtubule-associated protein, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Down Syndrome and ALS.
    GO:0050321    tau-protein kinase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + tau-protein = ADP + O-phospho-tau-protein.
    GO:0008134    transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
    GO:0016740    transferase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
    GO:0031625    ubiquitin protein ligase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme, any of the E3 proteins.
biological process
    GO:0006983    ER overload response    The series of molecular signals generated by the accumulation of normal or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and leading to activation of transcription by NF-kappaB.
    GO:0016055    Wnt signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell and ending with a change in cell state.
    GO:0007568    aging    A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).
    GO:0009887    animal organ morphogenesis    Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.
    GO:0007409    axonogenesis    De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon.
    GO:1904885    beta-catenin destruction complex assembly    The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a beta-catenin destruction complex.
    GO:1904886    beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly    The disaggregation of a beta-catenin destruction complex into its constituent components.
    GO:0060070    canonical Wnt signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes. In this pathway, the activated receptor signals via downstream effectors that result in the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation, thereby preventing degradation of beta-catenin. Stabilized beta-catenin can then accumulate and travel to the nucleus to trigger changes in transcription of target genes.
    GO:0044337    canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of apoptotic process    The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes involved in the positive regulation of apoptotic process.
    GO:0005975    carbohydrate metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule.
    GO:0030154    cell differentiation    The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state.
    GO:0016477    cell migration    The controlled self-propelled movement of a cell from one site to a destination guided by molecular cues. Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
    GO:1903351    cellular response to dopamine    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a dopamine stimulus.
    GO:0036018    cellular response to erythropoietin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an erythropoietin stimulus.
    GO:0035729    cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hepatocyte growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0070301    cellular response to hydrogen peroxide    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulus.
    GO:0036016    cellular response to interleukin-3    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interleukin-3 stimulus.
    GO:0071282    cellular response to iron(II) ion    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an iron(II) ion stimulus.
    GO:0071285    cellular response to lithium ion    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lithium (Li+) ion stimulus.
    GO:0071260    cellular response to mechanical stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a mechanical stimulus.
    GO:0099565    chemical synaptic transmission, postsynaptic    The part of synaptic transmission occurring in the post-synapse: a signal transduction pathway consisting of neurotransmitter receptor activation and its effects on postsynaptic membrane potential and the ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol.
    GO:0007623    circadian rhythm    Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
    GO:0007212    dopamine receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a dopamine receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
    GO:0001837    epithelial to mesenchymal transition    A transition where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.
    GO:0030010    establishment of cell polarity    The specification and formation of anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.
    GO:0007163    establishment or maintenance of cell polarity    Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.
    GO:0097192    extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand    A series of molecular signals in which a signal is conveyed from the cell surface to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway starts with withdrawal of a ligand from a cell surface receptor, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered.
    GO:0045444    fat cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
    GO:0005977    glycogen metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycogen, a polydisperse, highly branched glucan composed of chains of D-glucose residues in alpha-(1->4) glycosidic linkage, joined together by alpha-(1->6) glycosidic linkages.
    GO:0021766    hippocampus development    The progression of the hippocampus over time from its initial formation until its mature state.
    GO:0044027    hypermethylation of CpG island    An increase in the epigenetic methylation of cytosine and adenosine residues in a CpG island in DNA. CpG islands are genomic regions that contain a high frequency of the CG dinucleotide and are often associated with the transcription start site of genes.
    GO:0035556    intracellular signal transduction    The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell.
    GO:0070059    intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    A series of molecular signals in which an intracellular signal is conveyed to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway is induced in response to a stimulus indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
    GO:0007275    multicellular organism development    The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
    GO:0007520    myoblast fusion    A process in which non-proliferating myoblasts fuse to existing fibers or to myotubes to form new fibers. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
    GO:0014902    myotube differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
    GO:0043407    negative regulation of MAP kinase activity    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of MAP kinase activity.
    GO:0051534    negative regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of an NFAT protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
    GO:0043066    negative regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0090090    negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the Wnt signaling pathway through beta-catenin, the series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes.
    GO:0010614    negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division.
    GO:2000171    negative regulation of dendrite development    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dendrite development.
    GO:0050774    negative regulation of dendrite morphogenesis    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dendrite morphogenesis.
    GO:1904339    negative regulation of dopaminergic neuron differentiation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dopaminergic neuron differentiation.
    GO:2000466    negative regulation of glycogen (starch) synthase activity    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glycogen (starch) synthase activity.
    GO:0045719    negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycogen.
    GO:0014043    negative regulation of neuron maturation    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron maturation.
    GO:2001223    negative regulation of neuron migration    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron migration.
    GO:0010977    negative regulation of neuron projection development    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of neuron projection development. Neuron projection development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).
    GO:0051001    negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity    Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme nitric-oxide synthase.
    GO:0032091    negative regulation of protein binding    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.
    GO:0031333    negative regulation of protein complex assembly    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex assembly.
    GO:1900181    negative regulation of protein localization to nucleus    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
    GO:0009968    negative regulation of signal transduction    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction.
    GO:0034392    negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process.
    GO:2000077    negative regulation of type B pancreatic cell development    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of pancreatic B cell development.
    GO:0007399    nervous system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.
    GO:0018105    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
    GO:0018107    peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
    GO:0016310    phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.
    GO:2000573    positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA biosynthetic process.
    GO:0043547    positive regulation of GTPase activity    Any process that activates or increases the activity of a GTPase.
    GO:0043065    positive regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0045773    positive regulation of axon extension    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of axon extension.
    GO:0001954    positive regulation of cell-matrix adhesion    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell adhesion to an extracellular matrix.
    GO:2000463    positive regulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential    Any process that enhances the establishment or increases the extent of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) which is a temporary increase in postsynaptic potential due to the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and makes it easier for the neuron to fire an action potential.
    GO:0010918    positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of establishment or extent of a mitochondrial membrane potential, the electric potential existing across any mitochondrial membrane arising from charges in the membrane itself and from the charges present in the media on either side of the membrane.
    GO:1901030    positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.
    GO:0043525    positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death of neurons by apoptotic process.
    GO:1901216    positive regulation of neuron death    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of neuron death.
    GO:0033138    positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
    GO:0010800    positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation is the phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
    GO:0032436    positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
    GO:0032092    positive regulation of protein binding    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.
    GO:0045732    positive regulation of protein catabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein by the destruction of the native, active configuration, with or without the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
    GO:0031334    positive regulation of protein complex assembly    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex assembly.
    GO:0046827    positive regulation of protein export from nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of directed movement of proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
    GO:0048661    positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of smooth muscle cell proliferation.
    GO:2000738    positive regulation of stem cell differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell differentiation.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0043161    proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
    GO:0046777    protein autophosphorylation    The phosphorylation by a protein of one or more of its own amino acid residues (cis-autophosphorylation), or residues on an identical protein (trans-autophosphorylation).
    GO:0006611    protein export from nucleus    The directed movement of a protein from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
    GO:0035372    protein localization to microtubule    A process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained at, a microtubule.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0000320    re-entry into mitotic cell cycle    The resumption of the mitotic cell division cycle by cells that were in a quiescent or other non-dividing state.
    GO:0030516    regulation of axon extension    Any process that modulates the rate, direction or extent of axon extension.
    GO:0050770    regulation of axonogenesis    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of axonogenesis, the generation of an axon, the long process of a neuron.
    GO:1900034    regulation of cellular response to heat    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to heat.
    GO:0048814    regulation of dendrite morphogenesis    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of dendrite morphogenesis.
    GO:0006349    regulation of gene expression by genetic imprinting    Heritable alterations in the activity of a gene that depend on whether it passed through the paternal or the maternal germline, but that are not encoded by DNA itself.
    GO:0032886    regulation of microtubule-based process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of any cellular process that depends upon or alters the microtubule cytoskeleton.
    GO:0010975    regulation of neuron projection development    Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of neuron projection development. Neuron projection development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).
    GO:0048168    regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity    A process that modulates neuronal synaptic plasticity, the ability of neuronal synapses to change as circumstances require. They may alter function, such as increasing or decreasing their sensitivity, or they may increase or decrease in actual numbers.
    GO:1902065    response to L-glutamate    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an L-glutamate stimulus.
    GO:0014823    response to activity    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus.
    GO:1990776    response to angiotensin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an angiotensin stimulus. Angiotensin is any of three physiologically active peptides (angiotensin II, III, or IV) processed from angiotensinogen.
    GO:0042493    response to drug    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a drug stimulus. A drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease.
    GO:0071871    response to epinephrine    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an epinephrine stimulus. Epinephrine is a catecholamine that has the formula C9H13NO3; it is secreted by the adrenal medulla to act as a hormone, and released by certain neurons to act as a neurotransmitter active in the central nervous system.
    GO:0032355    response to estradiol    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of stimulus by estradiol, a C18 steroid hormone hydroxylated at C3 and C17 that acts as a potent estrogen.
    GO:0032868    response to insulin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:1990418    response to insulin-like growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin-like growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0010226    response to lithium ion    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lithium (Li+) ion stimulus.
    GO:1990478    response to ultrasound    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ultrasonic stimulus.
    GO:0048511    rhythmic process    Any process pertinent to the generation and maintenance of rhythms in the physiology of an organism.
    GO:0071109    superior temporal gyrus development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the superior temporal gyrus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The superior temporal gyrus is a portion of the cerebral cortex that extends from the lateral sulcus to the superior temporal sulcus.
cellular component
    GO:1990909    Wnt signalosome    A multiprotein protein complex containing membrane-localized Wnt receptors and cytosolic protein complexes, which is capable of transmitting the Wnt signal. Contains at least a Wnt protein, LRP5 or LRP6, a member of the Frizzled (Fz) family, Axin and and a Dishevelled (DVL) protein.
    GO:0030424    axon    The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.
    GO:0030877    beta-catenin destruction complex    A cytoplasmic protein complex containing glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3-beta), the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), and the scaffolding protein axin, among others; phosphorylates beta-catenin, targets it for degradation by the proteasome.
    GO:0044297    cell body    The portion of a cell bearing surface projections such as axons, dendrites, cilia, or flagella that includes the nucleus, but excludes all cell projections.
    GO:0005813    centrosome    A structure comprised of a core structure (in most organisms, a pair of centrioles) and peripheral material from which a microtubule-based structure, such as a spindle apparatus, is organized. Centrosomes occur close to the nucleus during interphase in many eukaryotic cells, though in animal cells it changes continually during the cell-division cycle.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0030425    dendrite    A neuron projection that has a short, tapering, often branched, morphology, receives and integrates signals from other neurons or from sensory stimuli, and conducts a nerve impulse towards the axon or the cell body. In most neurons, the impulse is conveyed from dendrites to axon via the cell body, but in some types of unipolar neuron, the impulse does not travel via the cell body.
    GO:0043198    dendritic shaft    Cylindric portion of the dendrite, directly stemming from the perikaryon, and carrying the dendritic spines.
    GO:0043197    dendritic spine    A small, membranous protrusion from a dendrite that forms a postsynaptic compartment - typically receiving input from a single presynapse. They function as partially isolated biochemical and an electrical compartments. Spine morphology is variable including "thin", "stubby", "mushroom", and "branched", with a continuum of intermediate morphologies. They typically terminate in a bulb shape, linked to the dendritic shaft by a restriction. Spine remodeling is though to be involved in synaptic plasticity.
    GO:0030426    growth cone    The migrating motile tip of a growing nerve cell axon or dendrite.
    GO:0030529    intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex    An intracellular macromolecular complex containing both protein and RNA molecules.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0045121    membrane raft    Any of the small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Small rafts can sometimes be stabilized to form larger platforms through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions.
    GO:0043227    membrane-bounded organelle    Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
    GO:0005739    mitochondrion    A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration.
    GO:0043025    neuronal cell body    The portion of a neuron that includes the nucleus, but excludes cell projections such as axons and dendrites.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0048471    perinuclear region of cytoplasm    Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0043234    protein complex    A stable macromolecular complex composed (only) of two or more polypeptide subunits along with any covalently attached molecules (such as lipid anchors or oligosaccharide) or non-protein prosthetic groups (such as nucleotides or metal ions). Prosthetic group in this context refers to a tightly bound cofactor. The component polypeptide subunits may be identical.

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 Related Entries

(-) Entries Sharing at Least One Protein Chain (UniProt ID)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
        AKT1_HUMAN | P317491h10 1unp 1unq 1unr 2uvm 2uzr 2uzs 3cqu 3mv5 3mvh 3o96 3ocb 3ow4 3qkk 3qkl 3qkm 4ejn 4ekk 4ekl 4gv1 5kcv
        GSK3B_HUMAN | P498411gng 1h8f 1i09 1j1b 1j1c 1o6k 1o6l 1o9u 1pyx 1q3d 1q3w 1q41 1q4l 1q5k 1r0e 1uv5 2jdo 2jdr 2jld 2o5k 2ow3 2uw9 2x39 2xh5 3cqu 3du8 3e87 3e88 3e8d 3f7z 3f88 3gb2 3i4b 3l1s 3m1s 3mv5 3ow4 3pup 3q3b 3qkk 3say 3sd0 3zdi 3zrk 3zrl 3zrm 4acc 4acd 4acg 4ach 4afj 4b7t 4dit 4ekk 4iq6 4j1r 4j71 4nm0 4nm3 4nm5 4nm7 4ptc 4pte 4ptg 5f94 5f95 5hln 5hlp 5k5n

(-) Related Entries Specified in the PDB File

3cqu