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(-) Description

Title :  CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE NANOG HOMEODOMAIN
 
Authors :  R. Jauch, C. K. L. Ng, K. S. Saitakendu, R. C. Stevens, P. R. Kolatkar
Date :  28 Nov 07  (Deposition) - 15 Jan 08  (Release) - 13 Jul 11  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.60
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H
Biol. Unit 1:  A  (1x)
Biol. Unit 2:  B  (1x)
Biol. Unit 3:  C  (1x)
Biol. Unit 4:  D  (1x)
Biol. Unit 5:  E  (1x)
Biol. Unit 6:  F  (1x)
Biol. Unit 7:  G  (1x)
Biol. Unit 8:  H  (1x)
Keywords :  Homeodomain, Dna-Binding, Transcription, Transcription Factor, Developmental Protein, Transcription Regulation, Nanog, Nucleus, Homeobox, Activator, Repressor (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  R. Jauch, C. K. L. Ng, K. S. Saitakendu, R. C. Stevens, P. R. Kolatkar
Crystal Structure And Dna Binding Of The Homeodomain Of The Stem Cell Transcription Factor Nanog.
J. Mol. Biol. V. 376 758 2008
PubMed-ID: 18177668  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1016/J.JMB.2007.11.091

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - HOMEOBOX PROTEIN NANOG
    ChainsA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI
    Expression System PlasmidPETG60A
    Expression System StrainBL21(DE3)
    Expression System Taxid469008
    FragmentHOMEODOMAIN, RESIDUES 96-155
    Organism CommonMOUSE
    Organism ScientificMUS MUSCULUS
    Organism Taxid10090
    SynonymHOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR NANOG, EARLY EMBRYO SPECIFIC EXPRESSION NK-TYPE HOMEOBOX PROTEIN, ES CELL- ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 4, NANOG

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12345678
Asymmetric Unit ABCDEFGH
Biological Unit 1 (1x)A       
Biological Unit 2 (1x) B      
Biological Unit 3 (1x)  C     
Biological Unit 4 (1x)   D    
Biological Unit 5 (1x)    E   
Biological Unit 6 (1x)     F  
Biological Unit 7 (1x)      G 
Biological Unit 8 (1x)       H

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (0, 0)

(no "Ligand,Modified Residues,Ions" information available for 2VI6)

(-) Sites  (0, 0)

(no "Site" information available for 2VI6)

(-) SS Bonds  (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1C:14 -G:56
2C:56 -G:14
3D:14 -E:56
4D:56 -E:14

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 2VI6)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (0, 0)

(no "SAP(SNP)/Variant" information available for 2VI6)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (1, 8)

Asymmetric Unit (1, 8)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  8A:34-57
B:34-57
C:34-57
D:34-57
E:34-57
F:34-57
G:34-57
H:34-57
Biological Unit 1 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1A:34-57
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Biological Unit 2 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
B:34-57
-
-
-
-
-
-
Biological Unit 3 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
C:34-57
-
-
-
-
-
Biological Unit 4 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
-
D:34-57
-
-
-
-
Biological Unit 5 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
-
-
E:34-57
-
-
-
Biological Unit 6 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
-
-
-
F:34-57
-
-
Biological Unit 7 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
-
-
-
-
G:34-57
-
Biological Unit 8 (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1HOMEOBOX_1PS00027 'Homeobox' domain signature.NANOG_MOUSE129-152
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H:34-57

(-) Exons   (0, 0)

(no "Exon" information available for 2VI6)

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:55
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:55
                                   110       120       130       140       150     
          NANOG_MOUSE   101 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6a_ A: automated matches                            SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: A:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 2vi6 A   6 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    15        25        35        45        55     

Chain B from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:54
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:54
                                   111       121       131       141       151    
          NANOG_MOUSE   102 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6b_ B: automated matches                           SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------ CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------ Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ..hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: B:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------ Transcript
                 2vi6 B   7 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    16        26        36        46        56    

Chain C from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:55
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:55
                                   110       120       130       140       150     
          NANOG_MOUSE   101 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6c_ C: automated matches                            SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: C:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 2vi6 C   6 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    15        25        35        45        55     

Chain D from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:55
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:55
                                   110       120       130       140       150     
          NANOG_MOUSE   101 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6d_ D: automated matches                            SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.....hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: D:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 2vi6 D   6 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    15        25        35        45        55     

Chain E from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:54
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:54
                                   111       121       131       141       151    
          NANOG_MOUSE   102 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6e_ E: automated matches                           SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------ CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------ Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ..hhhhhhhhhhhhh.....hhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: E:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------ Transcript
                 2vi6 E   7 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    16        26        36        46        56    

Chain F from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:55
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:55
                                   110       120       130       140       150     
          NANOG_MOUSE   101 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6f_ F: automated matches                            SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: F:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 2vi6 F   6 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    15        25        35        45        55     

Chain G from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:55
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:55
                                   110       120       130       140       150     
          NANOG_MOUSE   101 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6g_ G: automated matches                            SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: G:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 2vi6 G   6 TVFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    15        25        35        45        55     

Chain H from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:54
 aligned with NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:305

    Alignment length:54
                                   111       121       131       141       151    
          NANOG_MOUSE   102 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ 155
               SCOP domains d2vi6h_ H: automated matches                           SCOP domains
               CATH domains ------------------------------------------------------ CATH domains
           Pfam domains (1) Homeobox-2vi6H01 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (1)
           Pfam domains (2) Homeobox-2vi6H02 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (2)
           Pfam domains (3) Homeobox-2vi6H03 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (3)
           Pfam domains (4) Homeobox-2vi6H04 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (4)
           Pfam domains (5) Homeobox-2vi6H05 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (5)
           Pfam domains (6) Homeobox-2vi6H06 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (6)
           Pfam domains (7) Homeobox-2vi6H07 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (7)
           Pfam domains (8) Homeobox-2vi6H08 H:7-58                             -- Pfam domains (8)
         Sec.struct. author ..hhhhhhhhhhhhh.....hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------------------------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------HOMEOBOX_1  PDB: H:34-57--- PROSITE
                 Transcript ------------------------------------------------------ Transcript
                 2vi6 H   7 VFSQAQLCALKDRFQKQKYLSLQQMQELSSILNLSYKQVKTWFQNQRMKCKRWQ  60
                                    16        26        36        46        56    

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 8)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (0, 0)

(no "CATH Domain" information available for 2VI6)

(-) Pfam Domains  (1, 8)

Asymmetric Unit
(-)
Clan: HTH (544)

(-) Gene Ontology  (43, 43)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H   (NANOG_MOUSE | Q80Z64)
molecular function
    GO:0003677    DNA binding    Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
    GO:0003682    chromatin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.
    GO:0001158    enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific sequence of DNA that is part of an enhancer, a transcription regulatory region that is somewhat distal from the core promoter and which enhances transcription from that promoter.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0043565    sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with DNA of a specific nucleotide composition, e.g. GC-rich DNA binding, or with a specific sequence motif or type of DNA e.g. promotor binding or rDNA binding.
    GO:0003714    transcription corepressor activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a repressing transcription factor and also with the basal transcription machinery in order to stop, prevent, or reduce the frequency, rate or extent of transcription. Cofactors generally do not bind the template nucleic acid, but rather mediate protein-protein interactions between repressive transcription factors and the basal transcription machinery.
    GO:0003700    transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific DNA sequence in order to modulate transcription. The transcription factor may or may not also interact selectively with a protein or macromolecular complex.
    GO:0044212    transcription regulatory region DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a DNA region that regulates the transcription of a region of DNA, which may be a gene, cistron, or operon. Binding may occur as a sequence specific interaction or as an interaction observed only once a factor has been recruited to the DNA by other factors.
biological process
    GO:0008283    cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
    GO:0036018    cellular response to erythropoietin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an erythropoietin stimulus.
    GO:0072752    cellular response to rapamycin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a rapamycin stimulus.
    GO:0009880    embryonic pattern specification    The process that results in the patterns of cell differentiation that will arise in an embryo.
    GO:0001714    endodermal cell fate specification    The cell fate determination process that results in a cell becoming capable of differentiating autonomously into an endoderm cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway; upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
    GO:0008406    gonad development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the gonad over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The gonad is an animal organ that produces gametes; in some species it also produces hormones.
    GO:0001710    mesodermal cell fate commitment    The cell differentiation process that results in commitment of a cell to become part of the mesoderm.
    GO:0007275    multicellular organism development    The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
    GO:0009825    multidimensional cell growth    The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size in two or three [spatial] dimensions or along two or three axes.
    GO:0030514    negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the BMP signaling pathway.
    GO:0045596    negative regulation of cell differentiation    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell differentiation.
    GO:0010454    negative regulation of cell fate commitment    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
    GO:0042664    negative regulation of endodermal cell fate specification    Any process that restricts, stops or prevents a cell from specifying into an endoderm cell.
    GO:0000122    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0008284    positive regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0045931    positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0045893    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0045595    regulation of cell differentiation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell differentiation, the process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and functional features.
    GO:0010468    regulation of gene expression    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:2000036    regulation of stem cell population maintenance    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell population maintenance.
    GO:0006355    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0090399    replicative senescence    A cell aging process associated with the dismantling of a cell as a response to telomere shortening and/or cellular aging.
    GO:0014070    response to organic cyclic compound    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.
    GO:0010033    response to organic substance    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.
    GO:0032526    response to retinoic acid    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a retinoic acid stimulus.
    GO:0035019    somatic stem cell population maintenance    Any process by which an organism retains a population of somatic stem cells, undifferentiated cells in the embryo or adult which can undergo unlimited division and give rise to cell types of the body other than those of the germ-line.
    GO:0048863    stem cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a stem cell. A stem cell is a cell that retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
    GO:0017145    stem cell division    The self-renewing division of a stem cell. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell, in the embryo or adult, that can undergo unlimited division and give rise to one or several different cell types.
    GO:0019827    stem cell population maintenance    The process by which an organism or tissue maintains a population of stem cells of a single type. This can be achieved by a number of mechanisms: stem cell asymmetric division maintains stem cell numbers; stem cell symmetric division increases them; maintenance of a stem cell niche maintains the conditions for commitment to the stem cell fate for some types of stem cell; stem cells may arise de novo from other cell types.
    GO:0042246    tissue regeneration    The regrowth of lost or destroyed tissues.
    GO:0006351    transcription, DNA-templated    The cellular synthesis of RNA on a template of DNA.
cellular component
    GO:0005730    nucleolus    A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.
    GO:0005654    nucleoplasm    That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.

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