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(-) Description

Title :  CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA2: AN UNUSUAL FOLD FOR THE SUPERFAMILY
 
Authors :  S. Daopin, D. R. Davies
Date :  20 Oct 93  (Deposition) - 31 Jan 94  (Release) - 13 Jul 11  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  1.80
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A
Biol. Unit 1:  A  (2x)
Keywords :  Growth Factor (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  S. Daopin, K. A. Piez, Y. Ogawa, D. R. Davies
Crystal Structure Of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 2: An Unusual Fold For The Superfamily.
Science V. 257 369 1992
PubMed-ID: 1631557
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ,BETA 2
    ChainsA
    EngineeredYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  1
Asymmetric Unit A
Biological Unit 1 (2x)A

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (0, 0)

(no "Ligand,Modified Residues,Ions" information available for 2TGI)

(-) Sites  (0, 0)

(no "Site" information available for 2TGI)

(-) SS Bonds  (5, 5)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1A:7 -A:16
2A:15 -A:78
3A:44 -A:109
4A:48 -A:111
5A:77 -A:77

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1Glu A:35 -Pro A:36

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_072740R320CTGFB2_HUMANDisease  ---AR18C
2UniProtVAR_068934P338HTGFB2_HUMANDisease (LDS4)387907278AP36H

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (2, 4)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_072740R320CTGFB2_HUMANDisease  ---AR18C
2UniProtVAR_068934P338HTGFB2_HUMANDisease (LDS4)387907278AP36H

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit (1, 1)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1TGF_BETA_1PS00250 TGF-beta family signature.TGFB2_HUMAN335-350  1A:33-48
Biological Unit 1 (1, 2)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1TGF_BETA_1PS00250 TGF-beta family signature.TGFB2_HUMAN335-350  2A:33-48

(-) Exons   (3, 3)

Asymmetric Unit (3, 3)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1aENST000003669301aENSE00001443014chr1:218519577-218520389813TGFB2_HUMAN1-1161160--
1.3ENST000003669303ENSE00001000137chr1:218578511-218578674164TGFB2_HUMAN116-170550--
1.4aENST000003669304aENSE00001000141chr1:218607424-218607556133TGFB2_HUMAN171-215450--
1.5ENST000003669305ENSE00001000136chr1:218607680-218607790111TGFB2_HUMAN215-252380--
1.6ENST000003669306ENSE00001000138chr1:218609312-218609489178TGFB2_HUMAN252-311601A:1-99
1.7ENST000003669307ENSE00001000139chr1:218610685-218610838154TGFB2_HUMAN311-362521A:9-6052
1.8bENST000003669308bENSE00001443012chr1:218614546-2186179613416TGFB2_HUMAN363-414521A:61-11252

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:112
 aligned with TGFB2_HUMAN | P61812 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:414

    Alignment length:112
                                   312       322       332       342       352       362       372       382       392       402       412  
          TGFB2_HUMAN   303 ALDAAYCFRNVQDNCCLRPLYIDFKRDLGWKWIHEPKGYNANFCAGACPYLWSSDTQHSRVLSLYNTINPEASASPCCVSQDLEPLTILYYIGKTPKIEQLSNMIVKSCKCS 414
               SCOP domains d2tgia_ A: TGF-beta2                                                                                             SCOP domains
               CATH domains 2tgiA00 A:1-112 Cystine-knot cytokines                                                                           CATH domains
               Pfam domains -----------TGF_beta-2tgiA01 A:12-112                                                                             Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ...hhhhh......eeee.eeeehhhhh........eeeeeeeee............hhhhhhhh...........eeee.eeeeeeeeee....eeeeeee.eeee.eeee Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) -----------------C-----------------H---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE --------------------------------TGF_BETA_1      ---------------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.6 ---------------------------------------------------Exon 1.8b  PDB: A:61-112 UniProt: 363-414            Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) --------Exon 1.7  PDB: A:9-60 UniProt: 311-362              ---------------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                 2tgi A   1 ALDAAYCFRNVQDNCCLRPLYIDFKRDLGWKWIHEPKGYNANFCAGACPYLWSSDTQHSRVLSLYNTINPEASASPCCVSQDLEPLTILYYIGKTPKIEQLSNMIVKSCKCS 112
                                    10        20        30        40        50        60        70        80        90       100       110  

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit
(-)
Class: Mainly Beta (13760)

(-) Pfam Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) Gene Ontology  (115, 115)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (TGFB2_HUMAN | P61812)
molecular function
    GO:0001540    amyloid-beta binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with amyloid-beta peptide/protein and/or its precursor.
    GO:0005125    cytokine activity    Functions to control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells.
    GO:0008083    growth factor activity    The function that stimulates a cell to grow or proliferate. Most growth factors have other actions besides the induction of cell growth or proliferation.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0046982    protein heterodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
    GO:0042803    protein homodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein to form a homodimer.
    GO:0005102    receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
    GO:0004702    signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with serine/threonine kinase activity    Conveys a signal from an upstream receptor or intracellular signal transducer by catalysis of the reaction: ATP protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.
    GO:0005160    transforming growth factor beta receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the transforming growth factor beta receptor.
    GO:0005114    type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a type II transforming growth factor beta receptor.
    GO:0034714    type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a type III transforming growth factor beta receptor.
biological process
    GO:0007184    SMAD protein import into nucleus    The directed movement of a SMAD proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Pathway-restricted SMAD proteins and common-partner SMAD proteins are involved in the transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathways.
    GO:0060395    SMAD protein signal transduction    The cascade of processes by which a signal interacts with a receptor, causing a change in the activity of a SMAD protein, and ultimately effecting a change in the functioning of the cell.
    GO:0032147    activation of protein kinase activity    Any process that initiates the activity of an inactive protein kinase.
    GO:0001525    angiogenesis    Blood vessel formation when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.
    GO:0007411    axon guidance    The chemotaxis process that directs the migration of an axon growth cone to a specific target site in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.
    GO:0001568    blood vessel development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.
    GO:0001974    blood vessel remodeling    The reorganization or renovation of existing blood vessels.
    GO:0060317    cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition    A transition where a cardiac epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.
    GO:0060038    cardiac muscle cell proliferation    The expansion of a cardiac muscle cell population by cell division.
    GO:0010002    cardioblast differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
    GO:0001502    cartilage condensation    The condensation of mesenchymal cells that have been committed to differentiate into chondrocytes.
    GO:0042637    catagen    The regression phase of the hair cycle during which cell proliferation ceases, the hair follicle shortens, and an anchored club hair is produced.
    GO:0007050    cell cycle arrest    A regulatory process that halts progression through the cell cycle during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, M).
    GO:0008219    cell death    Any biological process that results in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell. A cell should be considered dead when any one of the following molecular or morphological criteria is met: (1) the cell has lost the integrity of its plasma membrane; (2) the cell, including its nucleus, has undergone complete fragmentation into discrete bodies (frequently referred to as apoptotic bodies). The cell corpse (or its fragments) may be engulfed by an adjacent cell in vivo, but engulfment of whole cells should not be considered a strict criteria to define cell death as, under some circumstances, live engulfed cells can be released from phagosomes (see PMID:18045538).
    GO:0016049    cell growth    The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.
    GO:0016477    cell migration    The controlled self-propelled movement of a cell from one site to a destination guided by molecular cues. Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
    GO:0000902    cell morphogenesis    The developmental process in which the size or shape of a cell is generated and organized.
    GO:0008283    cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
    GO:0045216    cell-cell junction organization    A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell-cell junction. A cell-cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells.
    GO:0007267    cell-cell signaling    Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. This process includes signal transduction in the receiving cell and, where applicable, release of a ligand and any processes that actively facilitate its transport and presentation to the receiving cell. Examples include signaling via soluble ligands, via cell adhesion molecules and via gap junctions.
    GO:0030199    collagen fibril organization    Any process that determines the size and arrangement of collagen fibrils within an extracellular matrix.
    GO:0042416    dopamine biosynthetic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.
    GO:0009790    embryo development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
    GO:0048566    embryonic digestive tract development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the gut over time, from its formation to the mature structure during embryonic development. The gut is the region of the digestive tract extending from the beginning of the intestines to the anus.
    GO:0003203    endocardial cushion morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structure of the endocardial cushion is generated and organized. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.
    GO:0001837    epithelial to mesenchymal transition    A transition where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.
    GO:0030198    extracellular matrix organization    A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix.
    GO:0097191    extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals in which a signal is conveyed from the cell surface to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway starts with either a ligand binding to a cell surface receptor, or a ligand being withdrawn from a cell surface receptor (e.g. in the case of signaling by dependence receptors), and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered.
    GO:0001654    eye development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The eye is the organ of sight.
    GO:0060325    face morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structures of the face are generated and organized. The face is the ventral division of the head.
    GO:0048699    generation of neurons    The process in which nerve cells are generated. This includes the production of neuroblasts and their differentiation into neurons.
    GO:0008347    glial cell migration    The orderly movement of a glial cell, non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.
    GO:0040007    growth    The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell.
    GO:0001942    hair follicle development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hair follicle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A hair follicle is a tube-like opening in the epidermis where the hair shaft develops and into which the sebaceous glands open.
    GO:0031069    hair follicle morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structures of the hair follicle are generated and organized.
    GO:0007507    heart development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the heart over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
    GO:0003007    heart morphogenesis    The developmental process in which the heart is generated and organized. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
    GO:0003179    heart valve morphogenesis    The process in which the structure of a heart valve is generated and organized.
    GO:0030097    hemopoiesis    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myeloid and lymphoid derived organ/tissue systems of the blood and other parts of the body over time, from formation to the mature structure. The site of hemopoiesis is variable during development, but occurs primarily in bone marrow or kidney in many adult vertebrates.
    GO:0046580    negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of Ras protein signal transduction.
    GO:0010693    negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of alkaline phosphatase activity, the catalysis of the reaction: an orthophosphoric monoester + H2O = an alcohol + phosphate, with an alkaline pH optimum.
    GO:0061037    negative regulation of cartilage development    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of cartilage development, the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage is a connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.
    GO:0030308    negative regulation of cell growth    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.
    GO:0008285    negative regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0050680    negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of epithelial cell proliferation.
    GO:1905006    negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation.
    GO:0010629    negative regulation of gene expression    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0050777    negative regulation of immune response    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.
    GO:0010936    negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of macrophage cytokine production. Macrophage cytokine production is the appearance of a chemokine due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
    GO:0048666    neuron development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.
    GO:0048663    neuron fate commitment    The process in which the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a neuron.
    GO:0030593    neutrophil chemotaxis    The directed movement of a neutrophil cell, the most numerous polymorphonuclear leukocyte found in the blood, in response to an external stimulus, usually an infection or wounding.
    GO:0042476    odontogenesis    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a tooth or teeth over time, from formation to the mature structure(s). A tooth is any hard bony, calcareous, or chitinous organ found in the mouth or pharynx of an animal and used in procuring or masticating food.
    GO:0060389    pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a pathway restricted SMAD protein. A pathway restricted SMAD protein is an effector protein that acts directly downstream of the transforming growth factor family receptor.
    GO:0002576    platelet degranulation    The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as histamine and serotonin by a platelet.
    GO:1904426    positive regulation of GTP binding    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of GTP binding.
    GO:0070237    positive regulation of activation-induced cell death of T cells    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activation-induced cell death of T cells.
    GO:0051891    positive regulation of cardioblast differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardioblast differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
    GO:0033630    positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of cell adhesion mediated by integrin.
    GO:0045787    positive regulation of cell cycle    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.
    GO:0051781    positive regulation of cell division    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell division.
    GO:0030307    positive regulation of cell growth    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.
    GO:0008284    positive regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0010634    positive regulation of epithelial cell migration    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell migration.
    GO:0010718    positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition    Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.
    GO:1905007    positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation.
    GO:0090091    positive regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly    Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of extracellular matrix disassembly. Extracellular matrix disassembly is a process that results in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix.
    GO:2001241    positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand.
    GO:0010628    positive regulation of gene expression    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0045823    positive regulation of heart contraction    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heart contraction.
    GO:0050778    positive regulation of immune response    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.
    GO:0045726    positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of integrins.
    GO:0043525    positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death of neurons by apoptotic process.
    GO:0045778    positive regulation of ossification    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of bone formation.
    GO:0010862    positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation    Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. Pathway-restricted SMAD proteins and common-partner SMAD proteins are involved in the transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathways.
    GO:0014068    positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade.
    GO:1900182    positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
    GO:0050714    positive regulation of protein secretion    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a protein from a cell.
    GO:0032874    positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the stress-activated MAPK cascade.
    GO:0051795    positive regulation of timing of catagen    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of timing of catagen, the regression phase of the hair cycle.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0032956    regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.
    GO:0042981    regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:1903659    regulation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of complement-dependent cytotoxicity.
    GO:1903053    regulation of extracellular matrix organization    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix organization.
    GO:0032909    regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta2.
    GO:0042493    response to drug    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a drug stimulus. A drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease.
    GO:0001666    response to hypoxia    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
    GO:0032570    response to progesterone    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a progesterone stimulus.
    GO:0009611    response to wounding    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to the organism.
    GO:0007435    salivary gland morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structures of the salivary gland are generated and organized.
    GO:0023014    signal transduction by protein phosphorylation    A process in which the transfer of one or more phosphate groups to a substrate transmits a signal to the phosphorylated substrate.
    GO:0001501    skeletal system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the skeleton over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The skeleton is the bony framework of the body in vertebrates (endoskeleton) or the hard outer envelope of insects (exoskeleton or dermoskeleton).
    GO:0048103    somatic stem cell division    The self-renewing division of a somatic stem cell, a stem cell that can give rise to cell types of the body other than those of the germ-line.
    GO:0007179    transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a transforming growth factor beta receptor on the surface of a target cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0042704    uterine wall breakdown    The sloughing of the endometrium and blood vessels during menstruation that results from a drop in progesterone levels.
    GO:0042060    wound healing    The series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.
cellular component
    GO:0030424    axon    The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.
    GO:0005768    endosome    A vacuole to which materials ingested by endocytosis are delivered.
    GO:0031012    extracellular matrix    A structure lying external to one or more cells, which provides structural support for cells or tissues.
    GO:0005576    extracellular region    The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.
    GO:0005615    extracellular space    That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
    GO:0043025    neuronal cell body    The portion of a neuron that includes the nucleus, but excludes cell projections such as axons and dendrites.
    GO:0031093    platelet alpha granule lumen    The volume enclosed by the membrane of the platelet alpha granule.

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