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(-) Description

Title :  STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF HUMAN POLO-LIKE KINASE 1
 
Authors :  Y. -H. Ding, M. Kothe, D. Kohls, S. Low
Date :  15 Feb 07  (Deposition) - 24 Apr 07  (Release) - 13 Jul 11  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.10
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A
Biol. Unit 1:  A  (1x)
Biol. Unit 2:  A  (2x)
Keywords :  Catalytic Domain, Plk1, Polo-Like Kinase1, Kinase, Transferase (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  M. Kothe, D. Kohls, S. Low, R. Coli, A. C. Cheng, S. L. Jacques, T. L. Johnson, C. Lewis, C. Loh, J. Nonomiya, A. L. Sheils, K. A. Verdries, T. A. Wynn, C. Kuhn, Y. H. Ding
Structure Of The Catalytic Domain Of Human Polo-Like Kinase 1.
Biochemistry V. 46 5960 2007
PubMed-ID: 17461553  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1021/BI602474J

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1
    ChainsA
    EC Number2.7.11.21
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemSPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA
    Expression System CommonFALL ARMYWORM
    Expression System StrainSF21
    Expression System Taxid7108
    Expression System Vector TypeBACULOVIRUS
    FragmentKINASE DOMAIN (RESIDUES 13-345)
    GenePLK1, PLK
    MutationYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymPOLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  1
Asymmetric Unit A
Biological Unit 1 (1x)A
Biological Unit 2 (2x)A

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (3, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (3, 4)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
16261Ligand/Ion4-(4-METHYLPIPERAZIN-1-YL)-N-[5-(2-THIENYLACETYL)-1,5-DIHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-C]PYRAZOL-3-YL]BENZAMIDE
2ACT2Ligand/IonACETATE ION
3ZN1Ligand/IonZINC ION
Biological Unit 1 (2, 3)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
16261Ligand/Ion4-(4-METHYLPIPERAZIN-1-YL)-N-[5-(2-THIENYLACETYL)-1,5-DIHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-C]PYRAZOL-3-YL]BENZAMIDE
2ACT2Ligand/IonACETATE ION
3ZN-1Ligand/IonZINC ION
Biological Unit 2 (2, 6)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
16262Ligand/Ion4-(4-METHYLPIPERAZIN-1-YL)-N-[5-(2-THIENYLACETYL)-1,5-DIHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-C]PYRAZOL-3-YL]BENZAMIDE
2ACT4Ligand/IonACETATE ION
3ZN-1Ligand/IonZINC ION

(-) Sites  (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (4, 4)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
1AC1SOFTWAREHIS A:93 , CYS A:212 , CYS A:255 , ACT A:502BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ZN A 501
2AC2SOFTWAREHIS A:93 , GLN A:94 , LYS A:97 , CYS A:212 , LEU A:256 , ZN A:501BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT A 502
3AC3SOFTWARELYS A:178 , LEU A:179 , GLY A:180 , ASN A:216 , TYR A:217 , HOH A:624 , HOH A:674BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT A 503
4AC4SOFTWAREARG A:57 , PHE A:58 , LEU A:59 , GLY A:62 , ALA A:65 , LYS A:66 , CYS A:67 , ALA A:80 , LYS A:82 , GLU A:131 , CYS A:133 , ARG A:134 , ARG A:136 , PHE A:183 , HOH A:514 , HOH A:538 , HOH A:545BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE 626 A 500

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 2OWB)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 2OWB)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_041019L261FPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism35056440AL261F
2UniProtVAR_051659N297DPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism16972799AN297D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (2, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_041019L261FPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism35056440AL261F
2UniProtVAR_051659N297DPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism16972799AN297D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 2 (2, 4)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_041019L261FPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism35056440AL261F
2UniProtVAR_051659N297DPLK1_HUMANPolymorphism16972799AN297D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1PROTEIN_KINASE_ATPPS00107 Protein kinases ATP-binding region signature.PLK1_HUMAN59-82  1A:59-82
2PROTEIN_KINASE_STPS00108 Serine/Threonine protein kinases active-site signature.PLK1_HUMAN172-184  1A:172-184
Biological Unit 1 (2, 2)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1PROTEIN_KINASE_ATPPS00107 Protein kinases ATP-binding region signature.PLK1_HUMAN59-82  1A:59-82
2PROTEIN_KINASE_STPS00108 Serine/Threonine protein kinases active-site signature.PLK1_HUMAN172-184  1A:172-184
Biological Unit 2 (2, 4)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1PROTEIN_KINASE_ATPPS00107 Protein kinases ATP-binding region signature.PLK1_HUMAN59-82  2A:59-82
2PROTEIN_KINASE_STPS00108 Serine/Threonine protein kinases active-site signature.PLK1_HUMAN172-184  2A:172-184

(-) Exons   (5, 5)

Asymmetric Unit (5, 5)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1aENST000003000931aENSE00001107240chr16:23690143-23690661519PLK1_HUMAN1-1361361A:37-136100
1.2bENST000003000932bENSE00001107217chr16:23691405-23691573169PLK1_HUMAN137-193571A:137-19357
1.3bENST000003000933bENSE00001107239chr16:23692235-23692379145PLK1_HUMAN193-241491A:193-24149
1.4ENST000003000934ENSE00001107237chr16:23693385-2369347894PLK1_HUMAN241-272321A:241-27232
1.5ENST000003000935ENSE00001107229chr16:23695191-23695410220PLK1_HUMAN273-346741A:273-33058
1.6ENST000003000936ENSE00001107234chr16:23698790-23698945156PLK1_HUMAN346-398530--
1.7ENST000003000937ENSE00001107238chr16:23699989-2370006678PLK1_HUMAN398-424270--
1.8ENST000003000938ENSE00001107241chr16:23700559-23700713155PLK1_HUMAN424-475520--
1.9ENST000003000939ENSE00001107222chr16:23700815-23700997183PLK1_HUMAN476-536610--
1.10aENST0000030009310aENSE00001107226chr16:23701181-23701688508PLK1_HUMAN537-603670--

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:294
 aligned with PLK1_HUMAN | P53350 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:603

    Alignment length:294
                                    46        56        66        76        86        96       106       116       126       136       146       156       166       176       186       196       206       216       226       236       246       256       266       276       286       296       306       316       326    
           PLK1_HUMAN    37 AKEIPEVLVDPRSRRRYVRGRFLGKGGFAKCFEISDADTKEVFAGKIVPKSLLLKPHQREKMSMEISIHRSLAHQHVVGFHGFFEDNDFVFVVLELCRRRSLLELHKRRKALTEPEARYYLRQIVLGCQYLHRNRVIHRDLKLGNLFLNEDLEVKIGDFGLATKVEYDGERKKTLCGTPNYIAPEVLSKKGHSFEVDVWSIGCIMYTLLVGKPPFETSCLKETYLRIKKNEYSIPKHINPVAASLIQKMLQTDPTARPTINELLNDEFFTSGYIPARLPITCLTIPPRFSIAPS 330
               SCOP domains d2owba_ A: automated matches                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SCOP domains
               CATH domains -----------2owbA01 A:48-136 Phosphorylase Kinase; domain 1                                          2owbA02 A:137-309 Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1                                                                                                                   --------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ----------------Pkinase-2owbA01 A:53-305                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ......eeee....eeeeeeeeeeee..eeeeeeee.....eeeeeeee.hhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh........eeeeee...eeeeee......hhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.ee....hhh.eee.....eee......ee..................hhhhhh.....hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.......hhhhhhhhhhhh........hhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhh.......hhhhhh.......... Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------F-----------------------------------D--------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP      -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PROTEIN_KINAS-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.1a  PDB: A:37-136 UniProt: 1-136 [INCOMPLETE]                                                Exon 1.2b  PDB: A:137-193 UniProt: 137-193               -----------------------------------------------Exon 1.4  PDB: A:241-272        Exon 1.5  PDB: A:273-330 UniProt: 273-346 [INCOMPLETE]     Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.3b  PDB: A:193-241 UniProt: 193-241       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                 2owb A  37 AKEIPEVLVDPRSRRRYVRGRFLGKGGFAKCFEISDADTKEVFAGKIVPKSLLLKPHQREKMSMEISIHRSLAHQHVVGFHGFFEDNDFVFVVLELCRRRSLLELHKRRKALTEPEARYYLRQIVLGCQYLHRNRVIHRDLKLGNLFLNEDLEVKIGDFGLATKVEYDGERKKVLCGTPNYIAPEVLSKKGHSFEVDVWSIGCIMYTLLVGKPPFETSCLKETYLRIKKNEYSIPKHINPVAASLIQKMLQTDPTARPTINELLNDEFFTSGYIPARLPITCLTIPPRFSIAPS 330
                                    46        56        66        76        86        96       106       116       126       136       146       156       166       176       186       196       206       216       226       236       246       256       266       276       286       296       306       316       326    

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit
(-)
Class: Alpha Beta (26913)

(-) Pfam Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit
(-)
Clan: PKinase (934)

(-) Gene Ontology  (73, 73)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (PLK1_HUMAN | P53350)
molecular function
    GO:0005524    ATP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
    GO:0010997    anaphase-promoting complex binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an anaphase-promoting complex. A ubiquitin ligase complex that degrades mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitory protein, thereby triggering sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis.
    GO:0016301    kinase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.
    GO:0008017    microtubule binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with microtubules, filaments composed of tubulin monomers.
    GO:0000166    nucleotide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose or deoxyribose.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0004672    protein kinase activity    Catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP.
    GO:0019901    protein kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a protein substrate.
    GO:0004674    protein serine/threonine kinase activity    Catalysis of the reactions: ATP + protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate.
    GO:0016740    transferase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
biological process
    GO:0031572    G2 DNA damage checkpoint    A cell cycle checkpoint that detects and negatively regulates progression from G2 to M phase in the cell cycle in response to DNA damage.
    GO:0000086    G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle    The mitotic cell cycle transition by which a cell in G2 commits to M phase. The process begins when the kinase activity of M cyclin/CDK complex reaches a threshold high enough for the cell cycle to proceed. This is accomplished by activating a positive feedback loop that results in the accumulation of unphosphorylated and active M cyclin/CDK complex.
    GO:0031145    anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, with ubiquitin-protein ligation catalyzed by the anaphase-promoting complex, and mediated by the proteasome.
    GO:0007049    cell cycle    The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division.
    GO:0051301    cell division    The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells.
    GO:0008283    cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
    GO:0000910    cytokinesis    The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a cell and its partitioning into two daughter cells.
    GO:0045184    establishment of protein localization    The directed movement of a protein to a specific location.
    GO:0016321    female meiosis chromosome segregation    The cell cycle process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a female.
    GO:0045143    homologous chromosome segregation    The cell cycle process in which replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the first division of the meiotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner; this pairing off, referred to as synapsis, permits genetic recombination. One homolog (both sister chromatids) of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
    GO:0001578    microtubule bundle formation    A process that results in a parallel arrangement of microtubules.
    GO:0000281    mitotic cytokinesis    A cell cycle process that results in the division of the cytoplasm of a cell after mitosis, resulting in the separation of the original cell into two daughter cells.
    GO:0007077    mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly    The cell cycle process in which the controlled breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitotic cell division occurs.
    GO:0000070    mitotic sister chromatid segregation    The cell cycle process in which replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the mitotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner. One homolog of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
    GO:0007094    mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint    A cell cycle checkpoint that delays the metaphase/anaphase transition of a mitotic nuclear division until the spindle is correctly assembled and chromosomes are attached to the spindle.
    GO:0043066    negative regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0045736    negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity.
    GO:0000122    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0018105    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
    GO:0016310    phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.
    GO:0010800    positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation. Peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation is the phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
    GO:0032436    positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
    GO:1900182    positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
    GO:0045862    positive regulation of proteolysis    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond or bonds within a protein.
    GO:1904668    positive regulation of ubiquitin protein ligase activity    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin protein ligase activity.
    GO:0051437    positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in regulation of mitotic cell cycle transition    Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of ubiquitin ligase activity that contributes to the regulation of the mitotic cell cycle phase transition.
    GO:0051443    positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity    Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of ubiquitin transferase activity.
    GO:0031648    protein destabilization    Any process that decreases the stability of a protein, making it more vulnerable to degradative processes or aggregation.
    GO:0071168    protein localization to chromatin    Any process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained at, a part of a chromosome that is organized into chromatin.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0016567    protein ubiquitination    The process in which one or more ubiquitin groups are added to a protein.
    GO:0042787    protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process    The process in which a ubiquitin group, or multiple groups, are covalently attached to the target protein, thereby initiating the degradation of that protein.
    GO:0051726    regulation of cell cycle    Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.
    GO:1902749    regulation of cell cycle G2/M phase transition    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell cycle G2/M phase transition.
    GO:0007346    regulation of mitotic cell cycle    Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progress through the mitotic cell cycle.
    GO:0030071    regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the cell cycle process in which a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the activation of the anaphase promoting complex by Cdc20/Sleepy homolog which results in the degradation of Securin.
    GO:1901673    regulation of mitotic spindle assembly    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic spindle assembly.
    GO:0043393    regulation of protein binding    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.
    GO:0051439    regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle    A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity that contributes to the mitotic cell cycle.
    GO:0007062    sister chromatid cohesion    The cell cycle process in which the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome become tethered to each other.
    GO:0070194    synaptonemal complex disassembly    The controlled breakdown of a synaptonemal complex.
cellular component
    GO:0005813    centrosome    A structure comprised of a core structure (in most organisms, a pair of centrioles) and peripheral material from which a microtubule-based structure, such as a spindle apparatus, is organized. Centrosomes occur close to the nucleus during interphase in many eukaryotic cells, though in animal cells it changes continually during the cell-division cycle.
    GO:0000785    chromatin    The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome.
    GO:0005694    chromosome    A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
    GO:0000775    chromosome, centromeric region    The region of a chromosome that includes the centromeric DNA and associated proteins. In monocentric chromosomes, this region corresponds to a single area of the chromosome, whereas in holocentric chromosomes, it is evenly distributed along the chromosome.
    GO:0000777    condensed chromosome kinetochore    A multisubunit complex that is located at the centromeric region of a condensed chromosome and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
    GO:0000942    condensed nuclear chromosome outer kinetochore    The region of a condensed nuclear chromosome kinetochore most external to centromeric DNA; this outer region mediates kinetochore-microtubule interactions.
    GO:0000780    condensed nuclear chromosome, centromeric region    The region of a condensed nuclear chromosome that includes the centromere and associated proteins, including the kinetochore. In monocentric chromosomes, this region corresponds to a single area of the chromosome, whereas in holocentric chromosomes, it is evenly distributed along the chromosome.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005856    cytoskeleton    Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0000776    kinetochore    A multisubunit complex that is located at the centromeric region of DNA and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
    GO:0015630    microtubule cytoskeleton    The part of the cytoskeleton (the internal framework of a cell) composed of microtubules and associated proteins.
    GO:0005815    microtubule organizing center    An intracellular structure that can catalyze gamma-tubulin-dependent microtubule nucleation and that can anchor microtubules by interacting with their minus ends, plus ends or sides.
    GO:0030496    midbody    A thin cytoplasmic bridge formed between daughter cells at the end of cytokinesis. The midbody forms where the contractile ring constricts, and may persist for some time before finally breaking to complete cytokinesis.
    GO:0005730    nucleolus    A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.
    GO:0005654    nucleoplasm    That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0005819    spindle    The array of microtubules and associated molecules that forms between opposite poles of a eukaryotic cell during mitosis or meiosis and serves to move the duplicated chromosomes apart.
    GO:0005876    spindle microtubule    Any microtubule that is part of a mitotic or meiotic spindle; anchored at one spindle pole.
    GO:0051233    spindle midzone    The area in the center of the spindle where the spindle microtubules from opposite poles overlap.
    GO:0000922    spindle pole    Either of the ends of a spindle, where spindle microtubules are organized; usually contains a microtubule organizing center and accessory molecules, spindle microtubules and astral microtubules.
    GO:0000795    synaptonemal complex    A proteinaceous scaffold found between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. It consists of 2 lateral elements and a central element, all running parallel to each other. Transverse filaments connect the lateral elements to the central element.

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        PLK1_HUMAN | P533501q4k 1q4o 1umw 2ogq 2ojx 2ou7 2rku 2v5q 2yac 3bzi 3c5l 3fc2 3fvh 3hih 3hik 3kb7 3p2w 3p2z 3p34 3p35 3p36 3p37 3q1i 3rq7 3thb 4a4l 4a4o 4dfw 4e67 4e9c 4e9d 4h5x 4h71 4hab 4hco 4hy2 4j52 4j53 4lkl 4lkm 4o56 4o6w 4o9w 4rcp 4whh 4whk 4whl 4x9r 4x9v 4x9w 5j19 5ta6 5ta8

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