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(-) Description

Title :  ATOMIC-RESOLUTION 3D STRUCTURE OF AMYLOID-BETA FIBRILS: THE OSAKA MUTATION
 
Authors :  A. K. Schuetz, T. Vagt, M. Huber, O. Y. Ovchinnikova, R. Cadalbert, J. Wa P. Guentert, A. Bockmann, R. Glockshuber, B. H. Meier
Date :  17 Oct 14  (Deposition) - 26 Nov 14  (Release) - 21 Jan 15  (Revision)
Method :  SOLID-STATE NMR
Resolution :  NOT APPLICABLE
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J  (20x)
Biol. Unit 1:  A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J  (1x)
Keywords :  Amyloid Beta, Osaka Mutation, Amyloid Fibrils, Protein Fibril (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  A. K. Schutz, T. Vagt, M. Huber, O. Y. Ovchinnikova, R. Cadalbert, J. Wall, P. Guntert, A. Bockmann, R. Glockshuber, B. H. Meier
Atomic-Resolution Three-Dimensional Structure Of Amyloid Beta Fibrils Bearing The Osaka Mutation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. V. 54 331 2015
PubMed-ID: 25395337  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1002/ANIE.201408598

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - AMYLOID BETA A4 PROTEIN
    ChainsA, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI
    Expression System PlasmidPET T7
    Expression System StrainBL21(DE3)
    Expression System Taxid469008
    Expression System Vector TypePLASMID
    FragmentUNP RESIDUES 672-711
    GeneA4, AD1, APP
    MutationYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12345678910
Asymmetric Unit (20x)ABCDEFGHIJ
Biological Unit 1 (1x)ABCDEFGHIJ

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (0, 0)

(no "Ligand,Modified Residues,Ions" information available for 2MVX)

(-) Sites  (0, 0)

(no "Site" information available for 2MVX)

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 2MVX)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 2MVX)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (4, 40)

Asymmetric Unit (4, 40)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_044424D678NA4_HUMANDisease (AD1)63750064A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JD7N
2UniProtVAR_000016A692GA4_HUMANDisease (AD1)63750671A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JA21G
3UniProtVAR_014217D694NA4_HUMANDisease (CAA-APP)63749810A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JD23N
4UniProtVAR_032276L705VA4_HUMANDisease (CAA-APP)63750921A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JL34V

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (4, 40)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_044424D678NA4_HUMANDisease (AD1)63750064A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JD7N
2UniProtVAR_000016A692GA4_HUMANDisease (AD1)63750671A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JA21G
3UniProtVAR_014217D694NA4_HUMANDisease (CAA-APP)63749810A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JD23N
4UniProtVAR_032276L705VA4_HUMANDisease (CAA-APP)63750921A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/JL34V

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (0, 0)

(no "PROSITE Motif" information available for 2MVX)

(-) Exons   (2, 20)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 20)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.2fENST000003467982fENSE00001909719chr21:27542972-2754288291A4_HUMAN1-19190--
1.5bENST000003467985bENSE00001612324chr21:27484463-27484296168A4_HUMAN20-75560--
1.6bENST000003467986bENSE00001017345chr21:27462388-27462259130A4_HUMAN76-119440--
1.7bENST000003467987bENSE00001726854chr21:27425664-27425552113A4_HUMAN119-156380--
1.8aENST000003467988aENSE00001017348chr21:27423509-27423316194A4_HUMAN157-221650--
1.9bENST000003467989bENSE00001303241chr21:27394358-27394156203A4_HUMAN221-289690--
1.11ENST0000034679811ENSE00001327560chr21:27372497-27372330168A4_HUMAN289-345570--
1.12aENST0000034679812aENSE00001309322chr21:27369731-2736967557A4_HUMAN345-364200--
1.13ENST0000034679813ENSE00001017338chr21:27354790-27354657134A4_HUMAN364-408450--
1.14aENST0000034679814aENSE00001608815chr21:27348341-2734826775A4_HUMAN409-433250--
1.15bENST0000034679815bENSE00001017350chr21:27347541-27347383159A4_HUMAN434-486530--
1.16ENST0000034679816ENSE00001299537chr21:27328069-27327941129A4_HUMAN487-529430--
1.17ENST0000034679817ENSE00001299406chr21:27327003-27326904100A4_HUMAN530-563340--
1.19ENST0000034679819ENSE00001299617chr21:27284274-27284053222A4_HUMAN563-637750--
1.20ENST0000034679820ENSE00001324614chr21:27277389-2727733654A4_HUMAN637-655190--
1.21bENST0000034679821bENSE00001318724chr21:27269985-27269885101A4_HUMAN655-6883410A:1-17
B:1-17
C:1-17
D:1-17
E:1-17
F:1-17
G:1-17
H:1-17
I:1-17
J:1-17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
1.22aENST0000034679822aENSE00001290140chr21:27264180-27264034147A4_HUMAN689-7374910A:18-40 (gaps)
B:18-40 (gaps)
C:18-40 (gaps)
D:18-40 (gaps)
E:18-40 (gaps)
F:18-40 (gaps)
G:18-40 (gaps)
H:18-40 (gaps)
I:18-40 (gaps)
J:18-40 (gaps)
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
1.23fENST0000034679823fENSE00001725664chr21:27254082-272528611222A4_HUMAN738-770330--

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx A   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain B from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx B   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain C from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx C   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain D from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx D   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain E from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx E   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain F from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx F   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain G from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx G   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain H from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx H   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain I from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx I   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

Chain J from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:39
 aligned with A4_HUMAN | P05067 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:770

    Alignment length:40
                                   681       691       701       711
             A4_HUMAN   672 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV 711
               SCOP domains ---------------------------------------- SCOP domains
               CATH domains ---------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ....eee...eeeeeeeee..-.................. Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------N-------------G-N----------V------ SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ---------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.21b       Exon 1.22a [INCOMPLETE] Transcript 1
                 2mvx J   1 DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFA-DVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVV  40
                                    10        20| |     30        40
                                               21 |                 
                                                 23                 

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (0, 0)

(no "SCOP Domain" information available for 2MVX)

(-) CATH Domains  (0, 0)

(no "CATH Domain" information available for 2MVX)

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 2MVX)

(-) Gene Ontology  (111, 111)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J   (A4_HUMAN | P05067)
molecular function
    GO:0003677    DNA binding    Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
    GO:0051425    PTB domain binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of a protein.
    GO:0033130    acetylcholine receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an acetylcholine receptor.
    GO:0019899    enzyme binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any enzyme.
    GO:0070851    growth factor receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a growth factor receptor.
    GO:0008201    heparin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with heparin, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans found mainly as an intracellular component of mast cells and which consist predominantly of alternating alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-6-sulfate residues.
    GO:0042802    identical protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein or proteins.
    GO:0046872    metal ion binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any metal ion.
    GO:0016504    peptidase activator activity    Binds to and increases the activity of a peptidase, any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis peptide bonds.
    GO:0030414    peptidase inhibitor activity    Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a peptidase, any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis peptide bonds.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0005102    receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
    GO:0004867    serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity    Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of serine-type endopeptidases, enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nonterminal peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain; a serine residue (and a histidine residue) are at the active center of the enzyme.
    GO:0046914    transition metal ion binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transition metal ions; a transition metal is an element whose atom has an incomplete d-subshell of extranuclear electrons, or which gives rise to a cation or cations with an incomplete d-subshell. Transition metals often have more than one valency state. Biologically relevant transition metals include vanadium, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and silver.
biological process
    GO:0007219    Notch signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to the receptor Notch on the surface of a target cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0008344    adult locomotory behavior    Locomotory behavior in a fully developed and mature organism.
    GO:1990000    amyloid fibril formation    The generation of amyloid fibrils, insoluble fibrous protein aggregates exhibiting beta sheet structure, from proteins. An example of this is seen when human RIP1 and RIP3 kinases form a heterodimeric functional amyloid signaling complex (PMID:22817896).
    GO:0019731    antibacterial humoral response    An immune response against bacteria mediated through a body fluid. Examples of this process are the antibacterial humoral responses in Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster.
    GO:0019732    antifungal humoral response    An immune response against a fungus mediated through a body fluid. An example of this process is the antifungal humoral response in Drosophila melanogaster.
    GO:0006915    apoptotic process    A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an execution phase. The execution phase is the last step of an apoptotic process, and is typically characterized by rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.
    GO:0008088    axo-dendritic transport    The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules in neuron projections.
    GO:0016199    axon midline choice point recognition    The recognition of molecules at the central nervous system midline choice point by an axon growth cone; this choice point determines whether the growth cone will cross the midline.
    GO:0007409    axonogenesis    De novo generation of a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. Refers to the morphogenesis or creation of shape or form of the developing axon.
    GO:0007155    cell adhesion    The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.
    GO:0006878    cellular copper ion homeostasis    Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of copper ions at the level of a cell.
    GO:0009987    cellular process    Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.
    GO:0044267    cellular protein metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes cellular protein modification.
    GO:0071320    cellular response to cAMP    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cAMP (cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate) stimulus.
    GO:1990090    cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus    A process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nerve growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0071874    cellular response to norepinephrine stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a norepinephrine stimulus. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine that has the formula C8H11NO3; it acts as a hormone, and as a neurotransmitter in most of the sympathetic nervous system.
    GO:0008203    cholesterol metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
    GO:0048669    collateral sprouting in absence of injury    The process in which outgrowths develop from the axons of intact undamaged neurons.
    GO:0050829    defense response to Gram-negative bacterium    Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a Gram-negative bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
    GO:0050830    defense response to Gram-positive bacterium    Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a Gram-positive bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
    GO:0016358    dendrite development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the dendrite over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A dendrite is a freely branching protoplasmic process of a nerve cell.
    GO:0006897    endocytosis    A vesicle-mediated transport process in which cells take up external materials or membrane constituents by the invagination of a small region of the plasma membrane to form a new membrane-bounded vesicle.
    GO:0030198    extracellular matrix organization    A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix.
    GO:0030900    forebrain development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the forebrain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The forebrain is the anterior of the three primary divisions of the developing chordate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain (in vertebrates, includes especially the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus and especially in higher vertebrates is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions, and voluntary motor functions).
    GO:0045087    innate immune response    Innate immune responses are defense responses mediated by germline encoded components that directly recognize components of potential pathogens.
    GO:0035235    ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by glutamate binding to a glutamate receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by the movement of ions through a channel in the receptor complex. Ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0007626    locomotory behavior    The specific movement from place to place of an organism in response to external or internal stimuli. Locomotion of a whole organism in a manner dependent upon some combination of that organism's internal state and external conditions.
    GO:0006378    mRNA polyadenylation    The enzymatic addition of a sequence of 40-200 adenylyl residues at the 3' end of a eukaryotic mRNA primary transcript.
    GO:0007617    mating behavior    The behavioral interactions between organisms for the purpose of mating, or sexual reproduction resulting in the formation of zygotes.
    GO:0010951    negative regulation of endopeptidase activity    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of endopeptidase activity, the endohydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
    GO:0045665    negative regulation of neuron differentiation    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron differentiation.
    GO:0010466    negative regulation of peptidase activity    Any process that stops or reduces the rate of peptidase activity, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
    GO:0007399    nervous system development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.
    GO:0050885    neuromuscular process controlling balance    Any process that an organism uses to control its balance, the orientation of the organism (or the head of the organism) in relation to the source of gravity. In humans and animals, balance is perceived through visual cues, the labyrinth system of the inner ears and information from skin pressure receptors and muscle and joint receptors.
    GO:0051402    neuron apoptotic process    Any apoptotic process in a neuron, the basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.
    GO:0031175    neuron projection development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).
    GO:0016322    neuron remodeling    The developmentally regulated remodeling of neuronal projections such as pruning to eliminate the extra dendrites and axons projections set up in early stages of nervous system development.
    GO:0002576    platelet degranulation    The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as histamine and serotonin by a platelet.
    GO:0010971    positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle    Any process that increases the rate or extent of progression from G2 phase to M phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
    GO:0045931    positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.
    GO:0010952    positive regulation of peptidase activity    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of peptidase activity, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0007176    regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of EGF-activated receptor activity.
    GO:0010468    regulation of gene expression    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0040014    regulation of multicellular organism growth    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of growth of the body of an organism so that it reaches its usual body size.
    GO:0043393    regulation of protein binding    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.
    GO:0050803    regulation of synapse structure or activity    Any process that modulates the physical form or the activity of a synapse, the junction between a neuron and a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell).
    GO:0006417    regulation of translation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA or circRNA.
    GO:0010288    response to lead ion    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lead ion stimulus.
    GO:0006979    response to oxidative stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
    GO:0001878    response to yeast    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a yeast species.
    GO:0051563    smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis    Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of calcium ions within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a cell or between the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and its surroundings.
    GO:0001967    suckling behavior    Specific behavior of a newborn or infant mammal that results in the derivation of nourishment from the breast.
    GO:0051124    synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction    The growth of a synapse at a neuromuscular junction, the site of apposition of a motor end plate and the subneural cleft of the skeletal muscle fiber that it innervates.
    GO:0008542    visual learning    Any process in an organism in which a change in behavior of an individual occurs in response to repeated exposure to a visual cue.
cellular component
    GO:0030134    COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle    A vesicle with a coat formed of the COPII coat complex proteins. The COPII coat complex is formed by the Sec23p/Sec24p and the Sec13p/Sec31p heterodimers. COPII-associated vesicles transport proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (anterograde transport).
    GO:0005794    Golgi apparatus    A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions.
    GO:0045177    apical part of cell    The region of a polarized cell that forms a tip or is distal to a base. For example, in a polarized epithelial cell, the apical region has an exposed surface and lies opposite to the basal lamina that separates the epithelium from other tissue.
    GO:0097449    astrocyte projection    A prolongation or process extending from the soma of an astrocyte and wrapping around neurons.
    GO:0030424    axon    The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.
    GO:0009986    cell surface    The external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
    GO:0005911    cell-cell junction    A cell junction that forms a connection between two or more cells in a multicellular organism; excludes direct cytoplasmic junctions such as ring canals.
    GO:0035253    ciliary rootlet    A cytoskeleton-like structure, originating from the basal body at the proximal end of a cilium, and extending proximally toward the cell nucleus. Rootlets are typically 80-100 nm in diameter and contain cross striae distributed at regular intervals of approximately 55-70 nm.
    GO:0005905    clathrin-coated pit    A part of the endomembrane system in the form of an invagination of a membrane upon which a clathrin coat forms, and that can be converted by vesicle budding into a clathrin-coated vesicle. Coated pits form on the plasma membrane, where they are involved in receptor-mediated selective transport of many proteins and other macromolecules across the cell membrane, in the trans-Golgi network, and on some endosomes.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0031410    cytoplasmic vesicle    A vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0043198    dendritic shaft    Cylindric portion of the dendrite, directly stemming from the perikaryon, and carrying the dendritic spines.
    GO:0043197    dendritic spine    A small, membranous protrusion from a dendrite that forms a postsynaptic compartment - typically receiving input from a single presynapse. They function as partially isolated biochemical and an electrical compartments. Spine morphology is variable including "thin", "stubby", "mushroom", and "branched", with a continuum of intermediate morphologies. They typically terminate in a bulb shape, linked to the dendritic shaft by a restriction. Spine remodeling is though to be involved in synaptic plasticity.
    GO:0005768    endosome    A vacuole to which materials ingested by endocytosis are delivered.
    GO:0031904    endosome lumen    The volume enclosed by the membrane of an endosome.
    GO:0070062    extracellular exosome    A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
    GO:0005576    extracellular region    The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.
    GO:0005615    extracellular space    That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.
    GO:0030426    growth cone    The migrating motile tip of a growing nerve cell axon or dendrite.
    GO:1990812    growth cone filopodium    A thin, stiff protrusion extended by the leading edge of an axonal or dendritic growth cone.
    GO:1990761    growth cone lamellipodium    A thin sheetlike process extended by the leading edge of an axonal or dendritic growth cone; contains a dense meshwork of actin filaments.
    GO:0016021    integral component of membrane    The component of a membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
    GO:0005887    integral component of plasma membrane    The component of the plasma membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
    GO:0043231    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle    Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
    GO:0044304    main axon    The main axonal trunk, as opposed to the collaterals; i.e., excluding collaterals, terminal, spines, or dendrites.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0045121    membrane raft    Any of the small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Small rafts can sometimes be stabilized to form larger platforms through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions.
    GO:0031594    neuromuscular junction    The junction between the axon of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. In response to the arrival of action potentials, the presynaptic button releases molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to a change in post-synaptic potential.
    GO:0043005    neuron projection    A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.
    GO:0005641    nuclear envelope lumen    The region between the two lipid bilayers of the nuclear envelope; 20-40 nm wide.
    GO:0048471    perinuclear region of cytoplasm    Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0031093    platelet alpha granule lumen    The volume enclosed by the membrane of the platelet alpha granule.
    GO:0043235    receptor complex    Any protein complex that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
    GO:0005791    rough endoplasmic reticulum    The rough (or granular) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has ribosomes adhering to the outer surface; the ribosomes are the site of translation of the mRNA for those proteins which are either to be retained within the cisternae (ER-resident proteins), the proteins of the lysosomes, or the proteins destined for export from the cell. Glycoproteins undergo their initial glycosylation within the cisternae.
    GO:0005790    smooth endoplasmic reticulum    The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER or SER) has no ribosomes attached to it. The smooth ER is the recipient of the proteins synthesized in the rough ER. Those proteins to be exported are passed to the Golgi complex, the resident proteins are returned to the rough ER and the lysosomal proteins after phosphorylation of their mannose residues are passed to the lysosomes. Glycosylation of the glycoproteins also continues. The smooth ER is the site of synthesis of lipids, including the phospholipids. The membranes of the smooth ER also contain enzymes that catalyze a series of reactions to detoxify both lipid-soluble drugs and harmful products of metabolism. Large quantities of certain compounds such as phenobarbital cause an increase in the amount of the smooth ER.
    GO:0051233    spindle midzone    The area in the center of the spindle where the spindle microtubules from opposite poles overlap.
    GO:0045202    synapse    The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron, muscle fiber or glial cell. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane.
    GO:0043195    terminal bouton    Terminal inflated portion of the axon, containing the specialized apparatus necessary to release neurotransmitters. The axon terminus is considered to be the whole region of thickening and the terminal bouton is a specialized region of it.
    GO:0032588    trans-Golgi network membrane    The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments that make up the trans-Golgi network.

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 Related Entries

(-) Entries Sharing at Least One Protein Chain (UniProt ID)

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        A4_HUMAN | P050671aap 1amb 1amc 1aml 1ba4 1ba6 1bjb 1bjc 1brc 1ca0 1hz3 1iyt 1mwp 1owt 1qcm 1qwp 1qxc 1qyt 1taw 1tkn 1uo7 1uo8 1uoa 1uoi 1x11 1z0q 1ze7 1ze9 1zjd 2beg 2bom 2bp4 2fjz 2fk1 2fk2 2fk3 2fkl 2fma 2g47 2ipu 2lfm 2llm 2lmn 2lmo 2lmp 2lmq 2lnq 2loh 2lp1 2lz3 2lz4 2m4j 2m9r 2m9s 2mgt 2mj1 2mpz 2mxu 2nao 2otk 2r0w 2wk3 2y29 2y2a 2y3j 2y3k 2y3l 3ayu 3bae 3bkj 3dxc 3dxd 3dxe 3gci 3ifl 3ifn 3ifo 3ifp 3jq5 3jql 3jti 3ktm 3l33 3l81 3moq 3mxc 3mxy 3nyj 3nyl 3ovj 3ow9 3sv1 3u0t 3umh 3umi 3umk 4hix 4jfn 4m1c 4mdr 4mvi 4mvk 4mvl 4nge 4ojf 4onf 4ong 4pqd 4pwq 4xxd 5aef 5am8 5amb 5buo 5c67 5csz 5how 5hox 5hoy 5kk3 5kna 5myo

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