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(-) Description

Title :  STRUCTURE AND PROTEIN DESIGN OF HUMAN APYRASE
 
Authors :  J. Dai, J. Liu, Y. Deng, T. M. Smith, M. Lu
Date :  05 Jan 04  (Deposition) - 16 Mar 04  (Release) - 24 Feb 09  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  1.70
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A,B
Biol. Unit 1:  A  (1x)
Biol. Unit 2:  B  (1x)
Keywords :  Adpase, Five-Blade Beta Propeller, Calcium-Binding Protein, Nucleotide-Binding Motif, Hydrolase (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  J. Dai, J. Liu, Y. Deng, T. M. Smith, M. Lu
Structure And Protein Design Of A Human Platelet Function Inhibitor.
Cell(Cambridge, Mass. ) V. 116 649 2004
PubMed-ID: 15006348  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00172-2
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - APYRASE
    ChainsA, B
    EC Number3.6.1.5
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI
    Expression System PlasmidPET3A
    Expression System StrainBL21(DE3)/PLYSS
    Expression System Taxid562
    Expression System Vector TypePLASMID
    GeneSHAPY
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymCA2+-DEPENDENT ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATASE, SOLUBLE CALCIUM-ACTIVATED NUCLEOTIDASE SCAN- 1

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12
Asymmetric Unit AB
Biological Unit 1 (1x)A 
Biological Unit 2 (1x) B

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (3, 13)

Asymmetric Unit (3, 13)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1ACT4Ligand/IonACETATE ION
2CA2Ligand/IonCALCIUM ION
3TRS7Ligand/Ion2-AMINO-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PROPANE-1,3-DIOL
Biological Unit 1 (2, 4)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1ACT1Ligand/IonACETATE ION
2CA-1Ligand/IonCALCIUM ION
3TRS3Ligand/Ion2-AMINO-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PROPANE-1,3-DIOL
Biological Unit 2 (2, 7)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1ACT3Ligand/IonACETATE ION
2CA-1Ligand/IonCALCIUM ION
3TRS4Ligand/Ion2-AMINO-2-HYDROXYMETHYL-PROPANE-1,3-DIOL

(-) Sites  (13, 13)

Asymmetric Unit (13, 13)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
01AC1SOFTWARESER A:98 , ASP A:99 , GLU A:145 , GLU A:214 , SER A:275 , GLU A:326 , HOH A:3135BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE CA A 1001
02AC2SOFTWARESER B:98 , ASP B:99 , GLU B:145 , GLU B:214 , SER B:275 , GLU B:326 , HOH B:3020BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE CA B 1002
03AC3SOFTWAREGLN A:234BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT A 3001
04AC4SOFTWARELYS B:161 , GLU B:162 , TRP B:163 , THR B:164BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT B 3002
05AC5SOFTWAREASP B:133 , LYS B:143 , TRP B:163 , ASN B:174 , PRO B:175 , HOH B:3046 , HOH B:3136 , HOH B:3235BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT B 3003
06AC6SOFTWAREARG B:93 , ARG B:113 , LYS B:143 , TRP B:163 , HOH B:3220 , HOH B:3239BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACT B 3004
07AC7SOFTWARETYR A:21 , ILE A:101 , VAL A:102 , VAL A:149 , LYS A:278 , GLU A:329 , HOH A:3016 , HOH A:3026 , HOH A:3145 , HOH A:3270BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS A 2001
08AC8SOFTWARELEU A:23 , LEU A:59 , LYS A:61 , ILE A:120 , GLU A:121 , GLY A:122 , HOH A:3177 , TYR B:63 , TRS B:2007BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS A 2002
09AC9SOFTWARETYR B:21 , VAL B:102 , LYS B:278 , GLU B:329 , HOH B:3019 , HOH B:3032 , HOH B:3103 , HOH B:3112 , HOH B:3169 , HOH B:3185BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS B 2003
10BC1SOFTWARETYR A:63 , LEU B:23 , LEU B:59 , LYS B:61 , ILE B:120 , GLU B:121 , GLY B:122 , TRS B:2007 , HOH B:3098 , HOH B:3237BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS B 2004
11BC2SOFTWAREILE A:260 , ALA A:261 , VAL A:262 , HOH A:3021 , HOH A:3106 , HOH A:3113 , HOH A:3141 , ALA B:232 , SER B:233 , GLN B:234 , LYS B:245BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS A 2005
12BC3SOFTWAREARG A:236 , VAL B:262 , SER B:263 , HIS B:264BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS B 2006
13BC4SOFTWAREARG A:36 , LYS A:61 , TRS A:2002 , ARG B:36 , LYS B:61 , TRS B:2004 , HOH B:3195 , HOH B:3237BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE TRS B 2007

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 1S18)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1Tyr A:21 -Pro A:22
2Pro A:207 -Pro A:208
3Tyr B:21 -Pro B:22
4Pro B:207 -Pro B:208

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (13, 26)

Asymmetric Unit (13, 26)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_068655D112ECANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)749246739A/BD42E
02UniProtVAR_068656W125CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)587776898A/BW55C
03UniProtVAR_068657M165TCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---A/BM95T
04UniProtVAR_068658L224PCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)150181226A/BL154P
05UniProtVAR_068659V226MCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)377546036A/BV156M
06UniProtVAR_062980P299LCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606700A/BP229L
07UniProtVAR_062981R300CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606701A/BR230C
08UniProtVAR_062982R300HCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606699A/BR230H
09UniProtVAR_068660S303RCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---A/BS233R
10UniProtVAR_068661A323TCANT1_HUMANPolymorphism9903215A/BA253T
11UniProtVAR_068662A360DCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)387907081A/BA290D
12UniProtVAR_068663I374NCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---A/BI304N
13UniProtVAR_068664G391ECANT1_HUMANPolymorphism34082669A/BG321E

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (13, 13)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_068655D112ECANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)749246739AD42E
02UniProtVAR_068656W125CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)587776898AW55C
03UniProtVAR_068657M165TCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---AM95T
04UniProtVAR_068658L224PCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)150181226AL154P
05UniProtVAR_068659V226MCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)377546036AV156M
06UniProtVAR_062980P299LCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606700AP229L
07UniProtVAR_062981R300CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606701AR230C
08UniProtVAR_062982R300HCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606699AR230H
09UniProtVAR_068660S303RCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---AS233R
10UniProtVAR_068661A323TCANT1_HUMANPolymorphism9903215AA253T
11UniProtVAR_068662A360DCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)387907081AA290D
12UniProtVAR_068663I374NCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---AI304N
13UniProtVAR_068664G391ECANT1_HUMANPolymorphism34082669AG321E

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 2 (13, 13)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_068655D112ECANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)749246739BD42E
02UniProtVAR_068656W125CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)587776898BW55C
03UniProtVAR_068657M165TCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---BM95T
04UniProtVAR_068658L224PCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)150181226BL154P
05UniProtVAR_068659V226MCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)377546036BV156M
06UniProtVAR_062980P299LCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606700BP229L
07UniProtVAR_062981R300CCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606701BR230C
08UniProtVAR_062982R300HCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)267606699BR230H
09UniProtVAR_068660S303RCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---BS233R
10UniProtVAR_068661A323TCANT1_HUMANPolymorphism9903215BA253T
11UniProtVAR_068662A360DCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)387907081BA290D
12UniProtVAR_068663I374NCANT1_HUMANDisease (DBQD1)  ---BI304N
13UniProtVAR_068664G391ECANT1_HUMANPolymorphism34082669BG321E

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (0, 0)

(no "PROSITE Motif" information available for 1S18)

(-) Exons   (3, 6)

Asymmetric Unit (3, 6)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1bENST000003924461bENSE00001389799chr17:77005812-7700574667CANT1_HUMAN-00--
1.2aENST000003924462aENSE00001511976chr17:76994045-76993922124CANT1_HUMAN-00--
1.2cENST000003924462cENSE00001377424chr17:76993726-76993074653CANT1_HUMAN1-2112112A:15-141
B:17-141
127
125
1.3ENST000003924463ENSE00001164238chr17:76991303-76991100204CANT1_HUMAN211-279692A:141-209
B:141-209
69
69
1.4ENST000003924464ENSE00001364349chr17:76990002-769877992204CANT1_HUMAN279-4011232A:209-331
B:209-331
123
123

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:317
 aligned with CANT1_HUMAN | Q8WVQ1 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:401

    Alignment length:317
                                    94       104       114       124       134       144       154       164       174       184       194       204       214       224       234       244       254       264       274       284       294       304       314       324       334       344       354       364       374       384       394       
          CANT1_HUMAN    85 NWYNDTYPLSPPQRTPAGIRYRIAVIADLDTESRAQEENTWFSYLKKGYLTLSDSGDKVAVEWDKDHGVLESHLAEKGRGMELSDLIVFNGKLYSVDDRTGVVYQIEGSKAVPWVILSDGDGTVEKGFKAEWLAVKDERLYVGGLGKEWTTTTGDVVNENPEWVKVVGYKGSVDHENWVSNYNALRAAAGIQPPGYLIHESACWSDTLQRWFFLPRRASQERYSEKDDERKGANLLLSASPDFGDIAVSHVGAVVPTHGFSSFKFIPNTDDQIIVALKSEEDSGRVASYIMAFTLDGRFLLPETKIGSVKYEGIEFI 401
               SCOP domains d1s18a_ A: Soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase SCAN-1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SCOP domains
               CATH domains ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
               Pfam domains ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ............eee..eeeeeeeeeeehhhhhh......eeeeeeeeeeeee.....eeeee....eeeee..........eeeeeee..eeeeee....eeeeee..eeeeeee...............eeeee..eeeee.....ee.....eeehhh.eeeee.....eeeeehhhhhhhhhhhh......eee...eeee....eeee...eee....hhhhhh.....eeeee......eeeee.......eeeeeeee.......eeeeeeeeee..eeeeeeeeee....eeeeeeeee..eeeeeee. Sec.struct. author
             SAPs(SNPs) (1) ---------------------------E------------C---------------------------------------T----------------------------------------------------------P-M------------------------------------------------------------------------LC--R-------------------T------------------------------------D-------------N----------------E---------- SAPs(SNPs) (1)
             SAPs(SNPs) (2) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------H----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (2)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.2c  PDB: A:15-141 UniProt: 1-211 [INCOMPLETE]                                                                           -------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.4  PDB: A:209-331 UniProt: 279-401                                                                                   Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.3  PDB: A:141-209 UniProt: 211-279                            -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                 1s18 A  15 NWYNDTYPLSPPQRTPAGIRYRIAVIADLDTESRAQEENTWFSYLKKGYLTLSDSGDKVAVEWDKDHGVLESHLAEKGRGMELSDLIVFNGKLYSVDDRTGVVYQIEGSKAVPWVILSDGDGTVEKGFKAEWLAVKDERLYVGGLGKEWTTTTGDVVNENPEWVKVVGYKGSVDHENWVSNYNALRAAAGIQPPGYLIHESACWSDTLQRWFFLPRRASQERYSEKDDERKGANLLLSASPDFGDIAVSHVGAVVPTHGFSSFKFIPNTDDQIIVALKSEEDSGRVASYIMAFTLDGRFLLPETKIGSVKYEGIEFI 331
                                    24        34        44        54        64        74        84        94       104       114       124       134       144       154       164       174       184       194       204       214       224       234       244       254       264       274       284       294       304       314       324       

Chain B from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:315
 aligned with CANT1_HUMAN | Q8WVQ1 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:401

    Alignment length:315
                                    96       106       116       126       136       146       156       166       176       186       196       206       216       226       236       246       256       266       276       286       296       306       316       326       336       346       356       366       376       386       396     
          CANT1_HUMAN    87 YNDTYPLSPPQRTPAGIRYRIAVIADLDTESRAQEENTWFSYLKKGYLTLSDSGDKVAVEWDKDHGVLESHLAEKGRGMELSDLIVFNGKLYSVDDRTGVVYQIEGSKAVPWVILSDGDGTVEKGFKAEWLAVKDERLYVGGLGKEWTTTTGDVVNENPEWVKVVGYKGSVDHENWVSNYNALRAAAGIQPPGYLIHESACWSDTLQRWFFLPRRASQERYSEKDDERKGANLLLSASPDFGDIAVSHVGAVVPTHGFSSFKFIPNTDDQIIVALKSEEDSGRVASYIMAFTLDGRFLLPETKIGSVKYEGIEFI 401
               SCOP domains d1s18b_ B: Soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase SCAN-1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SCOP domains
               CATH domains --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CATH domains
           Pfam domains (1) --------------------------Apyrase-1s18B01 B:43-331                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pfam domains (1)
           Pfam domains (2) --------------------------Apyrase-1s18B02 B:43-331                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pfam domains (2)
         Sec.struct. author ..........ee...eeeeeeeeeeehhhhhh......eeeeeeeeeeeee.....eeeee....eeeee..........eeeeeee..eeeeee....eeeeee..eeeeeee...............eeeee..eeeee.....ee.....eeehhh.eeeeee....eeeeehhhhhhhhhhhh......eee...eeee....eeee...eee....hhhhhh.....eeeee......eeeee.......eeeeeeee.......eeeeeeeeee..eeeeeeeeee....eeeeeeeee..eeeeeee. Sec.struct. author
             SAPs(SNPs) (1) -------------------------E------------C---------------------------------------T----------------------------------------------------------P-M------------------------------------------------------------------------LC--R-------------------T------------------------------------D-------------N----------------E---------- SAPs(SNPs) (1)
             SAPs(SNPs) (2) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------H----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (2)
                    PROSITE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.2c  PDB: B:17-141 UniProt: 1-211 [INCOMPLETE]                                                                         -------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.4  PDB: B:209-331 UniProt: 279-401                                                                                   Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.3  PDB: B:141-209 UniProt: 211-279                            -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                 1s18 B  17 YNDTYPLSPPQRTPAGIRYRIAVIADLDTESRAQEENTWFSYLKKGYLTLSDSGDKVAVEWDKDHGVLESHLAEKGRGMELSDLIVFNGKLYSVDDRTGVVYQIEGSKAVPWVILSDGDGTVEKGFKAEWLAVKDERLYVGGLGKEWTTTTGDVVNENPEWVKVVGYKGSVDHENWVSNYNALRAAAGIQPPGYLIHESACWSDTLQRWFFLPRRASQERYSEKDDERKGANLLLSASPDFGDIAVSHVGAVVPTHGFSSFKFIPNTDDQIIVALKSEEDSGRVASYIMAFTLDGRFLLPETKIGSVKYEGIEFI 331
                                    26        36        46        56        66        76        86        96       106       116       126       136       146       156       166       176       186       196       206       216       226       236       246       256       266       276       286       296       306       316       326     

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 2)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (0, 0)

(no "CATH Domain" information available for 1S18)

(-) Pfam Domains  (1, 2)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) Gene Ontology  (18, 18)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A,B   (CANT1_HUMAN | Q8WVQ1)
molecular function
    GO:0005509    calcium ion binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with calcium ions (Ca2+).
    GO:0004382    guanosine-diphosphatase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: GDP + H2O = GMP + phosphate.
    GO:0016787    hydrolase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e.g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
    GO:0046872    metal ion binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any metal ion.
    GO:0017110    nucleoside-diphosphatase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: a nucleoside diphosphate + H2O = a nucleotide + phosphate.
    GO:0016462    pyrophosphatase activity    Catalysis of the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond between two phosphate groups, leaving one phosphate on each of the two fragments.
    GO:0004871    signal transducer activity    Conveys a signal across a cell to trigger a change in cell function or state. A signal is a physical entity or change in state that is used to transfer information in order to trigger a response.
    GO:0045134    uridine-diphosphatase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: UDP + H2O = UMP + phosphate.
biological process
    GO:0043123    positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling.
    GO:0030166    proteoglycan biosynthetic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteoglycans, any glycoprotein in which the carbohydrate units are glycosaminoglycans.
    GO:0007165    signal transduction    The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
cellular component
    GO:0005794    Golgi apparatus    A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions.
    GO:0032580    Golgi cisterna membrane    The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the thin, flattened compartments that form the central portion of the Golgi complex.
    GO:0005783    endoplasmic reticulum    The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached).
    GO:0005789    endoplasmic reticulum membrane    The lipid bilayer surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum.
    GO:0070062    extracellular exosome    A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
    GO:0016021    integral component of membrane    The component of a membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.

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        CANT1_HUMAN | Q8WVQ11s1d 2h2n 2h2u

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1s1d