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(-) Description

Title :  CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF AN ACTIVATION LOOP MUTANT OF THE INSULIN RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE
 
Authors :  J. H. Till, A. J. Ablooglu, M. Frankel, R. A. Kohanski, S. R. Hubbard
Date :  19 Feb 01  (Deposition) - 07 Mar 01  (Release) - 24 Feb 09  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.40
Chains :  Asym./Biol. Unit :  A
Keywords :  Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Phosphotransferase (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  J. H. Till, A. J. Ablooglu, M. Frankel, S. M. Bishop, R. A. Kohanski, S. R. Hubbard
Crystallographic And Solution Studies Of An Activation Loop Mutant Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase: Insights Into Kinase Mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem. V. 276 10049 2001
PubMed-ID: 11124964  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1074/JBC.M010161200
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - INSULIN RECEPTOR
    ChainsA
    EC Number2.7.1.112
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemSPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA
    Expression System CommonFALL ARMYWORM
    Expression System Taxid7108
    FragmentTYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN
    MutationYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymIR

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  1
Asymmetric/Biological Unit A

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (2, 2)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (2, 2)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1ACP1Ligand/IonPHOSPHOMETHYLPHOSPHONIC ACID ADENYLATE ESTER
2MG1Ligand/IonMAGNESIUM ION

(-) Sites  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
1AC1SOFTWAREHOH A:114 , HOH A:116 , HOH A:121 , ACP A:300 , ASP A:1150BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE MG A 301
2AC2SOFTWAREHOH A:48 , HOH A:65 , HOH A:96 , HOH A:100 , HOH A:111 , HOH A:112 , HOH A:121 , HOH A:124 , HOH A:131 , HOH A:139 , HOH A:141 , MG A:301 , LEU A:1002 , GLN A:1004 , GLY A:1005 , SER A:1006 , VAL A:1010 , ALA A:1028 , LYS A:1030 , GLU A:1077 , MET A:1079 , MET A:1139 , ASP A:1150BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE ACP A 300

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 1I44)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (1, 1)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
No.Residues
1Gln A:1070 -Pro A:1071

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (22, 22)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (22, 22)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_004092R1020QINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)121913148AR993Q
02UniProtVAR_015922I1023FINSR_HUMANPolymorphism  ---AI996F
03UniProtVAR_004093G1035VINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)121913135AG1008V
04UniProtVAR_015923A1055VINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)  ---AA1028V
05UniProtVAR_041432L1065VINSR_HUMANPolymorphism56395521AL1038V
06UniProtVAR_004094A1075DINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)  ---AA1048D
07UniProtVAR_015924K1095EINSR_HUMANUnclassified  ---AK1068E
08UniProtVAR_015925R1119WINSR_HUMANDisease (LEPRCH)  ---AR1092W
09UniProtVAR_015926I1143TINSR_HUMANDisease (RMS)  ---AI1116T
10UniProtVAR_015927R1158QINSR_HUMANDisease (NIDDM)  ---AR1131Q
11UniProtVAR_015928R1158WINSR_HUMANDisease (RMS)111993466AR1131W
12UniProtVAR_004095A1161TINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)28933084AA1134T
13UniProtVAR_004096A1162EINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)121913154AA1135E
14UniProtVAR_004097M1180IINSR_HUMANPolymorphism121913157AM1153I
15UniProtVAR_015929R1201QINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)28933086AR1174Q
16UniProtVAR_015930R1201WINSR_HUMANDisease (RMS)  ---AR1174W
17UniProtVAR_004099P1205LINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)  ---AP1178L
18UniProtVAR_015931E1206DINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)  ---AE1179D
19UniProtVAR_015932E1206KINSR_HUMANDisease (LEPRCH)  ---AE1179K
20UniProtVAR_004100W1220LINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)52800171AW1193L
21UniProtVAR_004101W1227SINSR_HUMANDisease (IRAN type A)121913140AW1200S
22UniProtVAR_041433T1282AINSR_HUMANPolymorphism55875349AT1255A

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (2, 2)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (2, 2)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1PROTEIN_KINASE_ATPPS00107 Protein kinases ATP-binding region signature.INSR_HUMAN1029-1057  1A:1002-1030
2PROTEIN_KINASE_TYRPS00109 Tyrosine protein kinases specific active-site signature.INSR_HUMAN1155-1167  1A:1128-1140

(-) Exons   (6, 6)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit (6, 6)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1ENST000003028501ENSE00001283493chr19:7294011-7293803209INSR_HUMAN1-34340--
1.2ENST000003028502ENSE00001157643chr19:7267907-7267356552INSR_HUMAN34-2181850--
1.3ENST000003028503ENSE00001157630chr19:7184648-7184327322INSR_HUMAN218-3251080--
1.4ENST000003028504ENSE00001157622chr19:7174742-7174594149INSR_HUMAN325-375510--
1.5ENST000003028505ENSE00001157620chr19:7172445-7172301145INSR_HUMAN375-423490--
1.6ENST000003028506ENSE00001157613chr19:7170762-7170548215INSR_HUMAN423-495730--
1.7ENST000003028507ENSE00001157603chr19:7168105-7167979127INSR_HUMAN495-537430--
1.8ENST000003028508ENSE00001157594chr19:7166415-7166165251INSR_HUMAN537-621850--
1.9ENST000003028509ENSE00001157586chr19:7163210-7163043168INSR_HUMAN621-677570--
1.10ENST0000030285010ENSE00001157582chr19:7152938-7152737202INSR_HUMAN677-744680--
1.11ENST0000030285011ENSE00001157509chr19:7150543-715050836INSR_HUMAN744-756130--
1.12ENST0000030285012ENSE00001157577chr19:7143101-7142827275INSR_HUMAN756-848930--
1.13ENST0000030285013ENSE00001157569chr19:7141827-7141688140INSR_HUMAN848-894470--
1.14ENST0000030285014ENSE00001157563chr19:7132328-7132169160INSR_HUMAN895-948540--
1.15ENST0000030285015ENSE00001157555chr19:7128965-7128863103INSR_HUMAN948-982350--
1.16ENST0000030285016ENSE00001157546chr19:7126662-712659568INSR_HUMAN982-1005240--
1.17ENST0000030285017ENSE00001157539chr19:7125538-7125294245INSR_HUMAN1005-1086821A:986-105974
1.18ENST0000030285018ENSE00001157531chr19:7123000-7122890111INSR_HUMAN1087-1123371A:1060-109637
1.19ENST0000030285019ENSE00001157526chr19:7122784-7122625160INSR_HUMAN1124-1177541A:1097-115054
1.20ENST0000030285020ENSE00001686057chr19:7120760-7120631130INSR_HUMAN1177-1220441A:1150-1193 (gaps)44
1.21ENST0000030285021ENSE00001157513chr19:7119594-7119460135INSR_HUMAN1220-1265461A:1193-123846
1.22ENST0000030285022ENSE00001383357chr19:7117421-71122665156INSR_HUMAN1265-13821181A:1238-128346

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:282
 aligned with INSR_HUMAN | P06213 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:1382

    Alignment length:298
                                  1022      1032      1042      1052      1062      1072      1082      1092      1102      1112      1122      1132      1142      1152      1162      1172      1182      1192      1202      1212      1222      1232      1242      1252      1262      1272      1282      1292      1302        
          INSR_HUMAN   1013 PDEWEVSREKITLLRELGQGSFGMVYEGNARDIIKGEAETRVAVKTVNESASLRERIEFLNEASVMKGFTCHHVVRLLGVVSKGQPTLVVMELMAHGDLKSYLRSLRPEAENNPGRPPPTLQEMIQMAAEIADGMAYLNAKKFVHRDLAARNCMVAHDFTVKIGDFGMTRDIYETDYYRKGGKGLLPVRWMAPESLKDGVFTTSSDMWSFGVVLWEITSLAEQPYQGLSNEQVLKFVMDGGYLDQPDNCPERVTDLMRMCWQFNPKMRPTFLEIVNLLKDDLHPSFPEVSFFHSEENK 1310
               SCOP domains d1i44a_ A: Insulin receptor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1i44A01 A:986-1078 Phosphorylase Kinase; domain 1                                            1i44A02 A:1079-1282 Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1                                                                                                                                                - CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ......hhh.eeeeeeeee....eeeeeeee.......eeeeeeee.....hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.........eeeee......eeeee.....hhhhhhhhh.............hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.......hhh.eee.....eee......----------------.hhhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.........hhhhhhhhhhh..........hhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhh..hhhhhh...hhhhh Sec.struct. author
             SAPs(SNPs) (1) -------Q--F-----------V-------------------V---------V---------D-------------------E-----------------------W-----------------------T--------------Q--TE-----------------I--------------------Q---LD-------------L------S------------------------------------------------------A---------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (1)
             SAPs(SNPs) (2) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W------------------------------------------W----K-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (2)
                    PROSITE ----------------PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP           -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PROTEIN_KINAS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.17  PDB: A:986-1059 UniProt: 1005-1086 [INCOMPLETE]                Exon 1.18  PDB: A:1060-1096          Exon 1.19  PDB: A:1097-1150 UniProt: 1124-1177        ------------------------------------------Exon 1.21  PDB: A:1193-1238 UniProt: 1220-1265--------------------------------------------- Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.20  PDB: A:1150-1193 (gaps)          --------------------------------------------Exon 1.22  PDB: A:1238-1283 UniProt: 1265-1382 Transcript 1 (2)
                1i44 A  986 PDEWEVSREKITLLRELGQGSFGMVYEGNARDIIKGEAETRVAVKTVNESASLRERIEFLNEASVMKGFTCHHVVRLLGVVSKGQPTLVVMELMAHGDLKSYLRSLRPEAENNPGRPPPTLQEMIQMAAEIADGMAYLNAKKFVHRDLAARNCMVAHDFTVKIGDFGMT----------------LPVRWMAPESLKDGVFTTSSDMWSFGVVLWEITSLAEQPYQGLSNEQVLKFVMDGGYLDQPDNCPERVTDLMRMCWQFNPKMRPTFLEIVNLLKDDLHPSFPEVSFFHSEENK 1283
                                   995      1005      1015      1025      1035      1045      1055      1065      1075      1085      1095      1105      1115      1125      1135      1145        |-         -     |1175      1185      1195      1205      1215      1225      1235      1245      1255      1265      1275        
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1154             1171                                                                                                                

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (2, 2)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit
(-)
Class: Alpha Beta (26913)

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 1I44)

(-) Gene Ontology  (98, 98)

Asymmetric/Biological Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (INSR_HUMAN | P06213)
molecular function
    GO:0043423    3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase.
    GO:0005524    ATP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with ATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a universally important coenzyme and enzyme regulator.
    GO:0005525    GTP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
    GO:0051425    PTB domain binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of a protein.
    GO:0043559    insulin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with insulin, a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:0043560    insulin receptor substrate binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, adaptor proteins that bind to the transphosphorylated insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, are themselves phosphorylated and in turn recruit SH2 domain-containing signaling molecules to form a productive signaling complex.
    GO:0005009    insulin-activated receptor activity    Combining with insulin and transmitting the signal across the plasma membrane to initiate a change in cell activity.
    GO:0031994    insulin-like growth factor I binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with insulin-like growth factor I.
    GO:0031995    insulin-like growth factor II binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with insulin-like growth factor II.
    GO:0005159    insulin-like growth factor receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the insulin-like growth factor receptor.
    GO:0016301    kinase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.
    GO:0031405    lipoic acid binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with lipoic acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid.
    GO:0000166    nucleotide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose or deoxyribose.
    GO:0043548    phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to an inositol lipid at the 3' position of the inositol ring.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0032403    protein complex binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0019904    protein domain specific binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific domain of a protein.
    GO:0004672    protein kinase activity    Catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP.
    GO:0019901    protein kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a protein substrate.
    GO:0019903    protein phosphatase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein phosphatase.
    GO:0004713    protein tyrosine kinase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + protein tyrosine phosphate.
    GO:0004716    signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with protein tyrosine kinase activity    Conveys a signal from an upstream receptor or intracellular signal transducer by catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein-L-tyrosine = ADP + a protein-L-tyrosine phosphate.
    GO:0016740    transferase activity    Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
    GO:0004714    transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity    Combining with a signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity by catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein-L-tyrosine = ADP + a protein-L-tyrosine phosphate.
biological process
    GO:0007186    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The pathway can start from the plasma membrane, Golgi or nuclear membrane (PMID:24568158 and PMID:16902576).
    GO:0000187    activation of MAPK activity    The initiation of the activity of the inactive enzyme MAP kinase (MAPK).
    GO:0032148    activation of protein kinase B activity    Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme protein kinase B.
    GO:0032147    activation of protein kinase activity    Any process that initiates the activity of an inactive protein kinase.
    GO:0030325    adrenal gland development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the adrenal gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. This gland can either be a discrete structure located bilaterally above each kidney, or a cluster of cells in the head kidney that perform the functions of the adrenal gland. In either case, this organ consists of two cells types, aminergic chromaffin cells and steroidogenic cortical cells.
    GO:0009887    animal organ morphogenesis    Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.
    GO:0005975    carbohydrate metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule.
    GO:0071363    cellular response to growth factor stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth factor stimulus.
    GO:0032869    cellular response to insulin stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:0008544    epidermis development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the epidermis over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.
    GO:0031017    exocrine pancreas development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the exocrine pancreas over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The exocrine pancreas produces and store zymogens of digestive enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen in the acinar cells.
    GO:0045444    fat cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
    GO:0042593    glucose homeostasis    Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of glucose within an organism or cell.
    GO:0003007    heart morphogenesis    The developmental process in which the heart is generated and organized. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
    GO:0008286    insulin receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the insulin receptor binding to insulin.
    GO:0008584    male gonad development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the male gonad over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
    GO:0030238    male sex determination    The specification of male sex of an individual organism.
    GO:0010629    negative regulation of gene expression    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0001933    negative regulation of protein phosphorylation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
    GO:0032410    negative regulation of transporter activity    Any process that stops or reduces the activity of a transporter.
    GO:0038083    peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation    The phosphorylation by a protein of one or more of its own tyrosine amino acid residues, or a tyrosine residue on an identical protein.
    GO:0018108    peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation    The phosphorylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine.
    GO:0016310    phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.
    GO:0045740    positive regulation of DNA replication    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA replication.
    GO:0043410    positive regulation of MAPK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the MAPK cascade.
    GO:0030335    positive regulation of cell migration    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.
    GO:0008284    positive regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0048639    positive regulation of developmental growth    Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of developmental growth.
    GO:0046326    positive regulation of glucose import    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the import of the hexose monosaccharide glucose into a cell or organelle.
    GO:0045725    positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycogen.
    GO:0045821    positive regulation of glycolytic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycolysis.
    GO:0010560    positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process    Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
    GO:0051446    positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.
    GO:0045840    positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitosis.
    GO:0045429    positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nitric oxide.
    GO:0051897    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase B signaling, a series of reactions mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B.
    GO:0001934    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
    GO:0060267    positive regulation of respiratory burst    Any process that increases the rate frequency or extent of a phase of elevated metabolic activity, during which oxygen consumption increases; this leads to the production, by an NADH dependent system, of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals.
    GO:0045893    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0046777    protein autophosphorylation    The phosphorylation by a protein of one or more of its own amino acid residues (cis-autophosphorylation), or residues on an identical protein (trans-autophosphorylation).
    GO:0051290    protein heterotetramerization    The formation of a protein heterotetramer, a macromolecular structure consisting of four noncovalently associated subunits, of which not all are identical.
    GO:0006468    protein phosphorylation    The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a protein.
    GO:0045995    regulation of embryonic development    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.
    GO:2000194    regulation of female gonad development    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of female gonad development.
    GO:0010310    regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving hydrogen peroxide.
    GO:0006355    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0014823    response to activity    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus.
    GO:0032355    response to estradiol    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of stimulus by estradiol, a C18 steroid hormone hydroxylated at C3 and C17 that acts as a potent estrogen.
    GO:0045471    response to ethanol    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ethanol stimulus.
    GO:0051384    response to glucocorticoid    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a glucocorticoid stimulus. Glucocorticoids are hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol with the ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. Glucocorticoids act primarily on carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and have anti-inflammatory effects.
    GO:0009725    response to hormone    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hormone stimulus.
    GO:0032868    response to insulin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:0010042    response to manganese ion    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a manganese ion stimulus.
    GO:0031667    response to nutrient levels    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus reflecting the presence, absence, or concentration of nutrients.
    GO:0033574    response to testosterone    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a testosterone stimulus.
    GO:0034612    response to tumor necrosis factor    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a tumor necrosis factor stimulus.
    GO:0033280    response to vitamin D    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a vitamin D stimulus.
    GO:0023014    signal transduction by protein phosphorylation    A process in which the transfer of one or more phosphate groups to a substrate transmits a signal to the phosphorylated substrate.
    GO:0019087    transformation of host cell by virus    Any virus-induced change in the morphological, biochemical, or growth parameters of a cell.
    GO:0007169    transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where the receptor possesses tyrosine kinase activity, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
cellular component
    GO:0005901    caveola    A membrane raft that forms small pit, depression, or invagination that communicates with the outside of a cell and extends inward, indenting the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. Examples include flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane in adipocytes associated with caveolin proteins, and minute pits or incuppings of the cell membrane formed during pinocytosis. Caveolae may be pinched off to form free vesicles within the cytoplasm.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0005768    endosome    A vacuole to which materials ingested by endocytosis are delivered.
    GO:0010008    endosome membrane    The lipid bilayer surrounding an endosome.
    GO:0070062    extracellular exosome    A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.
    GO:0005899    insulin receptor complex    A disulfide-bonded, heterotetrameric receptor complex. The alpha chains are entirely extracellular, while each beta chain has one transmembrane domain. The ligand binds to the alpha subunit extracellular domain and the kinase is associated with the beta subunit intracellular domain.
    GO:0016021    integral component of membrane    The component of a membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
    GO:0005887    integral component of plasma membrane    The component of the plasma membrane consisting of the gene products and protein complexes having at least some part of their peptide sequence embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane.
    GO:0043231    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle    Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0043235    receptor complex    Any protein complex that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
    GO:0045202    synapse    The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron, muscle fiber or glial cell. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the postsynaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane.

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 Related Entries

(-) Entries Sharing at Least One Protein Chain (UniProt ID)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
        INSR_HUMAN | P062131gag 1ir3 1irk 1p14 1rqq 2auh 2b4s 2hr7 2mfr 2z8c 3bu3 3bu5 3bu6 3ekk 3ekn 3eta 3w11 3w12 3w13 3w14 4ibm 4oga 4xlv 4xss 4xst 4zxb 5e1s 5hhw 5j3h

(-) Related Entries Specified in the PDB File

1ir3 1IR3 IS THE PHOSPHORYLATED INSULIN RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH NUCLEOTIDE ANALOG AND PEPTIDE SUBSTRATE
1irk 1IRK IS THE APO FORM OF THE INSULIN RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE DOMAIN