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(-) Description

Title :  TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ATF4-C/EBP BETA BZIP HETERODIMER
 
Authors :  L. M. Podust, Y. Kim
Date :  07 Apr 99  (Deposition) - 04 Dec 00  (Release) - 24 Feb 09  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.60
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A,B
Biol. Unit 1:  A,B  (1x)
Biol. Unit 2:  A,B  (2x)
Biol. Unit 3:  A,B  (2x)
Biol. Unit 4:  A,B  (2x)
Keywords :  Transcription Factor, Bzip (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  L. M. Podust, A. M. Krezel, Y. Kim
Crystal Structure Of The Ccaat Box/Enhancer-Binding Protein Beta Activating Transcription Factor-4 Basic Leucine Zipper Heterodimer In The Absence Of Dna
J. Biol. Chem. V. 276 505 2001
PubMed-ID: 11018027  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1074/JBC.M005594200
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ATF-4
    ChainsA
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3)
    Expression System PlasmidPET11A
    Expression System StrainBL21
    Expression System Taxid469008
    Expression System VariantDE3
    Expression System Vector TypePLASMID
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
 
Molecule 2 - TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR C/EBP BETA
    ChainsB
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3)
    Expression System PlasmidPET11A
    Expression System StrainBL21
    Expression System Taxid469008
    Expression System VariantDE3
    Expression System Vector TypePLASMID
    Organism CommonHOUSE MOUSE
    Organism ScientificMUS MUSCULUS
    Organism Taxid10090

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12
Asymmetric Unit AB
Biological Unit 1 (1x)AB
Biological Unit 2 (2x)AB
Biological Unit 3 (2x)AB
Biological Unit 4 (2x)AB

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (2, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 4)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1BME1Ligand/IonBETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
2FE3Ligand/IonFE (III) ION
Biological Unit 1 (1, 1)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1BME1Ligand/IonBETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
2FE-1Ligand/IonFE (III) ION
Biological Unit 2 (1, 2)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1BME2Ligand/IonBETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
2FE-1Ligand/IonFE (III) ION
Biological Unit 3 (1, 2)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1BME2Ligand/IonBETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
2FE-1Ligand/IonFE (III) ION
Biological Unit 4 (1, 2)
No.NameCountTypeFull Name
1BME2Ligand/IonBETA-MERCAPTOETHANOL
2FE-1Ligand/IonFE (III) ION

(-) Sites  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
No.NameEvidenceResiduesDescription
1AC1SOFTWARETHR B:277 , ASN B:280BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE FE B 400
2AC2SOFTWARECYS A:310 , LYS A:315 , LYS B:253BINDING SITE FOR RESIDUE BME A 500

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 1CI6)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 1CI6)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit (1, 1)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_014768E322DATF4_HUMANPolymorphism1803324AE322D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (1, 1)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_014768E322DATF4_HUMANPolymorphism1803324AE322D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 2 (1, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_014768E322DATF4_HUMANPolymorphism1803324AE322D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 3 (1, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_014768E322DATF4_HUMANPolymorphism1803324AE322D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 4 (1, 2)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_014768E322DATF4_HUMANPolymorphism1803324AE322D

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (0, 0)

(no "PROSITE Motif" information available for 1CI6)

(-) Exons   (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit (1, 1)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.2bENST000003966802bENSE00001525917chr22:39916569-39916756188ATF4_HUMAN-00--
1.2dENST000003966802dENSE00001525916chr22:39917359-39917676318ATF4_HUMAN1-76760--
1.3bENST000003966803bENSE00000880372chr22:39917778-39918691914ATF4_HUMAN76-3512761A:286-34156

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:56
 aligned with ATF4_HUMAN | P18848 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:351

    Alignment length:56
                                   295       305       315       325       335      
           ATF4_HUMAN   286 EQNKTAATRYRQKKRAEQEALTGECKELEKKNEALKERADSLAKEIQYLKDLIEEV 341
               SCOP domains d1ci6a_ A: Atf4                                          SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1ci6A00 A:286-341  [code=1.20.5.170, no name defined]    CATH domains
               Pfam domains -------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author ........................................................ Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ------------------------------------D------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE -------------------------------------------------------- PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.3b  PDB: A:286-341 UniProt: 76-351 [INCOMPLETE]   Transcript 1
                 1ci6 A 286 EQNKTAATRYRQKKRAEQEALTGECKELEKKNEALKERADSLAKEIQYLKDLIEEV 341
                                   295       305       315       325       335      

Chain B from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:47
 aligned with CEBPB_MOUSE | P28033 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:296

    Alignment length:47
                                   248       258       268       278       
          CEBPB_MOUSE   239 SRDKAKMRNLETQHKVLELTAENERLQKKVEQLSRELSTLRNLFKQL 285
               SCOP domains d1ci6b_ B: C/ebp beta                           SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1ci6B00 B:239-285                               CATH domains
               Pfam domains ----------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ----------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ----------------------------------------------- PROSITE
                 Transcript ----------------------------------------------- Transcript
                 1ci6 B 239 SRDKAKMRNLETQHKVLELTAENERLQKKVEQLSRELSTLRNLFKQL 285
                                   248       258       268       278       

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (1, 2)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 1CI6)

(-) Gene Ontology  (105, 127)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (ATF4_HUMAN | P18848)
molecular function
    GO:0003677    DNA binding    Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
    GO:0000978    RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is in cis with and relatively close to a core promoter for RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0000977    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific sequence of DNA that is part of a regulatory region that controls the transcription of a gene or cistron by RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0000981    RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific DNA sequence in order to modulate transcription by RNA polymerase II. The transcription factor may or may not also interact selectively with a protein or macromolecular complex.
    GO:0001085    RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an RNA polymerase II transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription by RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0001046    core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is part of a core promoter region composed of the transcription start site and binding sites for the basal transcription machinery. The transcribed region might be described as a gene, cistron, or operon.
    GO:0043522    leucine zipper domain binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a leucine zipper domain, a protein secondary structure exhibiting a periodic repetition of leucine residues at every seventh position over a distance covering eight helical turns.
    GO:0008022    protein C-terminus binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein C-terminus, the end of any peptide chain at which the 1-carboxy function of a constituent amino acid is not attached in peptide linkage to another amino-acid residue.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0046982    protein heterodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
    GO:0043565    sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with DNA of a specific nucleotide composition, e.g. GC-rich DNA binding, or with a specific sequence motif or type of DNA e.g. promotor binding or rDNA binding.
    GO:0001076    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an RNA polymerase II transcription factor, which may be a single protein or a complex, in order to modulate transcription. A protein binding transcription factor may or may not also interact with the template nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) as well.
    GO:0003700    transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific DNA sequence in order to modulate transcription. The transcription factor may or may not also interact selectively with a protein or macromolecular complex.
    GO:0008134    transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
    GO:0044212    transcription regulatory region DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a DNA region that regulates the transcription of a region of DNA, which may be a gene, cistron, or operon. Binding may occur as a sequence specific interaction or as an interaction observed only once a factor has been recruited to the DNA by other factors.
    GO:0001077    transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is in cis with and relatively close to a core promoter for RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) in order to activate or increase the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from the RNAP II promoter.
biological process
    GO:0036499    PERK-mediated unfolded protein response    A series of molecular signals mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum membrane stress sensor PERK (PKR-like ER kinase). Begins with activation of PERK in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The main substrate of PERK is the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. Serine-phosphorylation of eIF2alpha by PERK inactivates eIF2alpha and inhibits general protein translation. In addition, eIF2alpha phosphorylation preferentially increases the translation of selective mRNAs such as ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4), which up regulates a subset of UPR genes required to restore folding capacity.
    GO:0006520    cellular amino acid metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids, carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups, as carried out by individual cells.
    GO:0034644    cellular response to UV    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ultraviolet radiation (UV light) stimulus. Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 380 nanometers.
    GO:0034198    cellular response to amino acid starvation    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of deprivation of amino acids.
    GO:0042149    cellular response to glucose starvation    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of deprivation of glucose.
    GO:0032922    circadian regulation of gene expression    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression such that an expression pattern recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
    GO:0007623    circadian rhythm    Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
    GO:0007214    gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated by the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms, to a cell surface receptor.
    GO:0006094    gluconeogenesis    The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
    GO:0070059    intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    A series of molecular signals in which an intracellular signal is conveyed to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway is induced in response to a stimulus indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
    GO:0042789    mRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    The cellular synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA template by RNA polymerase II, originating at an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:1903204    negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron death    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oxidative stress-induced neuron death.
    GO:0043267    negative regulation of potassium ion transport    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of potassium ions (K+) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
    GO:0032057    negative regulation of translational initiation in response to stress    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of translation initiation as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.
    GO:0043065    positive regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0010628    positive regulation of gene expression    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0043525    positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death of neurons by apoptotic process.
    GO:0045943    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase I promoter.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0061395    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to arsenic-containing substance    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of an arsenic stimulus from compounds containing arsenic, including arsenates, arsenites, and arsenides.
    GO:1990440    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of an endoplasmic reticulum stress.
    GO:0036091    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to oxidative stress    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
    GO:0036003    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to stress    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).
    GO:0045893    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0010575    positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production    Any process that increases or activates the frequency, rate, or extent of production of vascular endothelial growth factor.
    GO:0006357    regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0006355    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0034976    response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stress acting at the endoplasmic reticulum. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
    GO:1990737    response to manganese-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by a manganese stimulus.
    GO:0048511    rhythmic process    Any process pertinent to the generation and maintenance of rhythms in the physiology of an organism.
    GO:0006366    transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template by RNA polymerase II, originating at an RNA polymerase II promoter. Includes transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA) and certain small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs).
    GO:0006351    transcription, DNA-templated    The cellular synthesis of RNA on a template of DNA.
cellular component
    GO:1990590    ATF1-ATF4 transcription factor complex    Transcription factor complex consisting of ATF1 and ATF4 subunits that is capable of binding to cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3') of the GRP78 (HSPA5) promoter. Involved in the ER stress response pathway.
    GO:1990589    ATF4-CREB1 transcription factor complex    Transcription factor complex consisting of ATF4 and CREB1 subunits that is capable of binding to cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3') as part of the positive regulation of transcription. Regulatory targets include the GRP78 (HSPA5) promoter in humans, whose activation by this complex is part of the ER stress response pathway.
    GO:1990617    CHOP-ATF4 complex    A heterodimeric transcription factor complex that is composed of CHOP (C/EBP homology protein, GADD153) and ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4, also known as cAMP response element binding protein-2/CREB-2) subunits.
    GO:1990037    Lewy body core    The center portion of a Lewy body. In Parkinson's disease, it contains a matted meshwork of filaments.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005856    cytoskeleton    Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles.
    GO:0032590    dendrite membrane    The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a dendrite.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0005815    microtubule organizing center    An intracellular structure that can catalyze gamma-tubulin-dependent microtubule nucleation and that can anchor microtubules by interacting with their minus ends, plus ends or sides.
    GO:0043005    neuron projection    A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.
    GO:0034399    nuclear periphery    The portion of the nuclear lumen proximal to the inner nuclear membrane.
    GO:0005654    nucleoplasm    That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0005667    transcription factor complex    A protein complex that is capable of associating with DNA by direct binding, or via other DNA-binding proteins or complexes, and regulating transcription.

Chain B   (CEBPB_MOUSE | P28033)
molecular function
    GO:0003677    DNA binding    Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
    GO:0000978    RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is in cis with and relatively close to a core promoter for RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0000979    RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the regulatory region composed of the transcription start site and binding sites for transcription factors of the RNA polymerase II basal transcription machinery.
    GO:0000977    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific sequence of DNA that is part of a regulatory region that controls the transcription of a gene or cistron by RNA polymerase II.
    GO:0000981    RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific DNA sequence in order to modulate transcription by RNA polymerase II. The transcription factor may or may not also interact selectively with a protein or macromolecular complex.
    GO:0003682    chromatin binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.
    GO:0035259    glucocorticoid receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a glucocorticoid receptor.
    GO:0035035    histone acetyltransferase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the enzyme histone acetyltransferase.
    GO:0042826    histone deacetylase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with the enzyme histone deacetylase.
    GO:0019900    kinase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a kinase, any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0046982    protein heterodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
    GO:0042803    protein homodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with an identical protein to form a homodimer.
    GO:0043565    sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with DNA of a specific nucleotide composition, e.g. GC-rich DNA binding, or with a specific sequence motif or type of DNA e.g. promotor binding or rDNA binding.
    GO:0003705    transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is in a distal enhancer region for RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) in order to modulate transcription by RNAP II.
    GO:0003700    transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a specific DNA sequence in order to modulate transcription. The transcription factor may or may not also interact selectively with a protein or macromolecular complex.
    GO:0008134    transcription factor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a transcription factor, any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription.
    GO:0044212    transcription regulatory region DNA binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a DNA region that regulates the transcription of a region of DNA, which may be a gene, cistron, or operon. Binding may occur as a sequence specific interaction or as an interaction observed only once a factor has been recruited to the DNA by other factors.
    GO:0001077    transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a sequence of DNA that is in cis with and relatively close to a core promoter for RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) in order to activate or increase the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from the RNAP II promoter.
    GO:0044389    ubiquitin-like protein ligase binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a ubiquitin-like protein ligase, such as ubiquitin-ligase.
biological process
    GO:0035711    T-helper 1 cell activation    The change in morphology and behavior of a T-helper 1 cell resulting from exposure to a mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or an antigen for which it is specific.
    GO:0050873    brown fat cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a brown adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Brown adipocytes contain multiple small droplets of triglycerides and a high number of mitochondria.
    GO:0030154    cell differentiation    The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state.
    GO:0071230    cellular response to amino acid stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an amino acid stimulus. An amino acid is a carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups.
    GO:0071347    cellular response to interleukin-1    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interleukin-1 stimulus.
    GO:0071222    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipopolysaccharide stimulus; lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
    GO:0071407    cellular response to organic cyclic compound    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.
    GO:0042742    defense response to bacterium    Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
    GO:0001892    embryonic placenta development    The embryonically driven process whose specific outcome is the progression of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The placenta is an organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin.
    GO:0045444    fat cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
    GO:0002432    granuloma formation    The formation of nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, well-structured, and containing compactly grouped T lymphocytes and modified phagocytes such as epithelioid cells, giant cells, and other macrophages. Granuloma formation represents a chronic inflammatory response initiated by various infectious and noninfectious agents. The center of a granuloma consists of fused macrophages, which can become necrotic.
    GO:0072574    hepatocyte proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of hepatocytes, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Hepatocytes form the main structural component of the liver. They are specialized epithelial cells that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
    GO:0070059    intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    A series of molecular signals in which an intracellular signal is conveyed to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway is induced in response to a stimulus indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
    GO:0001889    liver development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the liver over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The liver is an exocrine gland which secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat, synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood, synthesizes vitamin A, detoxifies poisonous substances, stores glycogen, and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes.
    GO:0097421    liver regeneration    The regrowth of lost or destroyed liver.
    GO:0060644    mammary gland epithelial cell differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized epithelial cell becomes a more specialized epithelial cell of the mammary gland.
    GO:0033598    mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of mammary gland epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Mammary gland epithelial cells make up the covering of surfaces of the mammary gland. The mammary gland is a large compound sebaceous gland that in female mammals is modified to secrete milk.
    GO:0007613    memory    The activities involved in the mental information processing system that receives (registers), modifies, stores, and retrieves informational stimuli. The main stages involved in the formation and retrieval of memory are encoding (processing of received information by acquisition), storage (building a permanent record of received information as a result of consolidation) and retrieval (calling back the stored information and use it in a suitable way to execute a given task).
    GO:0042130    negative regulation of T cell proliferation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of T cell proliferation.
    GO:0043524    negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process in neurons.
    GO:0045892    negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0030182    neuron differentiation    The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron.
    GO:0001541    ovarian follicle development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ovarian follicle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
    GO:0045600    positive regulation of fat cell differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.
    GO:0032753    positive regulation of interleukin-4 production    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-4 production.
    GO:0045669    positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of osteoblast differentiation.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:1990440    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of an endoplasmic reticulum stress.
    GO:0045893    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0045408    regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-6.
    GO:0045670    regulation of osteoclast differentiation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of osteoclast differentiation.
    GO:0060850    regulation of transcription involved in cell fate commitment    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter that contributes to the commitment of a cell to a specific fate.
    GO:0006355    regulation of transcription, DNA-templated    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular DNA-templated transcription.
    GO:0034976    response to endoplasmic reticulum stress    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stress acting at the endoplasmic reticulum. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
    GO:0032496    response to lipopolysaccharide    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipopolysaccharide stimulus; lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
    GO:0006366    transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template by RNA polymerase II, originating at an RNA polymerase II promoter. Includes transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA) and certain small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs).
    GO:0006351    transcription, DNA-templated    The cellular synthesis of RNA on a template of DNA.
cellular component
    GO:0036488    CHOP-C/EBP complex    A heterodimeric protein complex that is composed of the transcription factor CHOP (GADD153) and a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors.
    GO:0000779    condensed chromosome, centromeric region    The region of a condensed chromosome that includes the centromere and associated proteins, including the kinetochore. In monocentric chromosomes, this region corresponds to a single area of the chromosome, whereas in holocentric chromosomes, it is evenly distributed along the chromosome.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0000790    nuclear chromatin    The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome in the nucleus.
    GO:0016363    nuclear matrix    The dense fibrillar network lying on the inner side of the nuclear membrane.
    GO:0005654    nucleoplasm    That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.

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