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(-) Description

Title :  COMPLEX OF HUMAN H-RAS WITH HUMAN SOS-1
 
Authors :  P. A. Boriack-Sjodin, S. M. Margarit, D. B. Sagi, J. Kuriyan
Date :  06 Jul 98  (Deposition) - 13 Jan 99  (Release) - 24 Feb 09  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.80
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  R,S
Biol. Unit 1:  R,S  (4x)
Keywords :  Complex (Oncogene Protein/Exchange Factor), Small Gtpase, Exchange Factor, Complex(Oncogene Protein/Exchange Factr) Complex (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  P. A. Boriack-Sjodin, S. M. Margarit, D. Bar-Sagi, J. Kuriyan
The Structural Basis Of The Activation Of Ras By Sos.
Nature V. 394 337 1998
PubMed-ID: 9690470  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1038/28548
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - H-RAS
    Cellular LocationCYTOPLASM
    Cell LineBL21
    ChainsR
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3)
    Expression System PlasmidPROEX HTB
    Expression System StrainBL21 (DE3)
    Expression System Taxid469008
    FragmentRESIDUES 1-166
    OrganBRAIN
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymP21
 
Molecule 2 - SON OF SEVENLESS-1
    Cellular LocationMEMBRANE-ANCHORED
    Cell LineBL21
    ChainsS
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3)
    Expression System PlasmidPROEX HTB
    Expression System StrainBL21 (DE3)
    Expression System Taxid469008
    FragmentRAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR FRAGMENT
    OrganBRAIN
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymSOS

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  12
Asymmetric Unit RS
Biological Unit 1 (4x)RS

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (0, 0)

(no "Ligand,Modified Residues,Ions" information available for 1BKD)

(-) Sites  (0, 0)

(no "Site" information available for 1BKD)

(-) SS Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "SS Bond" information available for 1BKD)

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1Pro S:924 -Pro S:925

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (29, 29)

Asymmetric Unit (29, 29)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_026106G12ARASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12A
02UniProtVAR_045975G12CRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894229RG12C
03UniProtVAR_068816G12DRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12D
04UniProtVAR_045976G12ERASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)  ---RG12E
05UniProtVAR_006837G12SRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894229RG12S
06UniProtVAR_006836G12VRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12V
07UniProtVAR_026107G13CRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894228RG13C
08UniProtVAR_026108G13DRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894226RG13D
09UniProtVAR_068817G13RRASH_HUMANDisease (SFM)104894228RG13R
10UniProtVAR_045977Q22KRASH_HUMANDisease (CMEMS)121917757RQ22K
11UniProtVAR_045978T58IRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)121917758RT58I
12UniProtVAR_045979Q61KRASH_HUMANDisease (NMTC2)28933406RQ61K
13UniProtVAR_006838Q61LRASH_HUMANUnclassified121913233RQ61L
14UniProtVAR_045980E63KRASH_HUMANDisease (CMEMS)121917756RE63K
15UniProtVAR_078259S89CRASH_HUMANUnclassified755322824RS89C
16UniProtVAR_045981K117RRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894227RK117R
17UniProtVAR_045982A146TRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894231RA146T
18UniProtVAR_045983A146VRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)121917759RA146V
19UniProtVAR_066051L569VSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism200786705SL569V
20UniProtVAR_066052F623ISOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SF623I
21UniProtVAR_030438Y702HSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)727505381SY702H
22UniProtVAR_066053A708TSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism140811086SA708T
23UniProtVAR_030439W729LSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SW729L
24UniProtVAR_030440I733FSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)574088829SI733F
25UniProtVAR_066054I784TSOS1_HUMANUnclassified  ---SI784T
26UniProtVAR_030441E846KSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)397517159SE846K
27UniProtVAR_066055P894RSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SP894R
28UniProtVAR_030442Q977RSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism  ---SQ977R
29UniProtVAR_066056N1011SSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism8192671SN1011S

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (29, 116)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
01UniProtVAR_026106G12ARASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12A
02UniProtVAR_045975G12CRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894229RG12C
03UniProtVAR_068816G12DRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12D
04UniProtVAR_045976G12ERASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)  ---RG12E
05UniProtVAR_006837G12SRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894229RG12S
06UniProtVAR_006836G12VRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894230RG12V
07UniProtVAR_026107G13CRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894228RG13C
08UniProtVAR_026108G13DRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894226RG13D
09UniProtVAR_068817G13RRASH_HUMANDisease (SFM)104894228RG13R
10UniProtVAR_045977Q22KRASH_HUMANDisease (CMEMS)121917757RQ22K
11UniProtVAR_045978T58IRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)121917758RT58I
12UniProtVAR_045979Q61KRASH_HUMANDisease (NMTC2)28933406RQ61K
13UniProtVAR_006838Q61LRASH_HUMANUnclassified121913233RQ61L
14UniProtVAR_045980E63KRASH_HUMANDisease (CMEMS)121917756RE63K
15UniProtVAR_078259S89CRASH_HUMANUnclassified755322824RS89C
16UniProtVAR_045981K117RRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894227RK117R
17UniProtVAR_045982A146TRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)104894231RA146T
18UniProtVAR_045983A146VRASH_HUMANDisease (CSTLO)121917759RA146V
19UniProtVAR_066051L569VSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism200786705SL569V
20UniProtVAR_066052F623ISOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SF623I
21UniProtVAR_030438Y702HSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)727505381SY702H
22UniProtVAR_066053A708TSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism140811086SA708T
23UniProtVAR_030439W729LSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SW729L
24UniProtVAR_030440I733FSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)574088829SI733F
25UniProtVAR_066054I784TSOS1_HUMANUnclassified  ---SI784T
26UniProtVAR_030441E846KSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)397517159SE846K
27UniProtVAR_066055P894RSOS1_HUMANDisease (NS4)  ---SP894R
28UniProtVAR_030442Q977RSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism  ---SQ977R
29UniProtVAR_066056N1011SSOS1_HUMANPolymorphism8192671SN1011S

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (4, 4)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1RASPS51421 small GTPase Ras family profile.RASH_HUMAN1-188  1R:1-166
2RASGEF_NTERPS50212 Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factors N-terminal domain profile.SOS1_HUMAN597-741  1S:597-741
3RASGEF_CATPS50009 Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factors catalytic domain profile.SOS1_HUMAN780-1019  1S:780-1019
4RASGEFPS00720 Ras Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors domain signature.SOS1_HUMAN927-960  1S:927-960
Biological Unit 1 (4, 16)
 PROSITEUniProtKBPDB
No.IDACDescriptionIDLocationCountLocation
1RASPS51421 small GTPase Ras family profile.RASH_HUMAN1-188  4R:1-166
2RASGEF_NTERPS50212 Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factors N-terminal domain profile.SOS1_HUMAN597-741  4S:597-741
3RASGEF_CATPS50009 Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factors catalytic domain profile.SOS1_HUMAN780-1019  4S:780-1019
4RASGEFPS00720 Ras Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors domain signature.SOS1_HUMAN927-960  4S:927-960

(-) Exons   (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (4, 4)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.3ENST000003975963ENSE00001529352chr11:535339-53525783RASH_HUMAN-00--
1.5bENST000003975965bENSE00002189675chr11:534375-534212164RASH_HUMAN1-37371R:1-3737
1.6cENST000003975966cENSE00001728710chr11:533944-533766179RASH_HUMAN38-97601R:38-9760
1.7aENST000003975967aENSE00001206466chr11:533612-533453160RASH_HUMAN97-150541R:97-15054
1.9dENST000003975969dENSE00001628271chr11:532755-532242514RASH_HUMAN151-189391R:151-16616

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain R from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:166
 aligned with RASH_HUMAN | P01112 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:189

    Alignment length:166
                                    10        20        30        40        50        60        70        80        90       100       110       120       130       140       150       160      
          RASH_HUMAN      1 MTEYKLVVVGAGGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFVDEYDPTIEDSYRKQVVIDGETCLLDILDTAGQEEYSAMRDQYMRTGEGFLCVFAINNTKSFEDIHQYREQIKRVKDSDDVPMVLVGNKCDLAARTVESRQAQDLARSYGIPYIETSAKTRQGVEDAFYTLVREIRQH  166
               SCOP domains d1bkdr_ R: cH-p21 Ras protein                                                                                                                                          SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1bkdR00 R:1-166 P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases                                                                                                   CATH domains
               Pfam domains ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author .eeeeeeeee.....hhhhhhhh.................eeeeee..eeeeeeee........hhhhhhhhhh..eeeeeee...hhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhh.......eeeeeee.........hhhhhhhhhhh...eeeee......hhhhhhhhhhhhh.. Sec.struct. author
             SAPs(SNPs) (1) -----------AC--------K-----------------------------------I--K-K-------------------------C---------------------------R----------------------------T-------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (1)
             SAPs(SNPs) (2) -----------CD-----------------------------------------------L------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V-------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (2)
             SAPs(SNPs) (3) -----------DR--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (3)
             SAPs(SNPs) (4) -----------E---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (4)
             SAPs(SNPs) (5) -----------S---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (5)
             SAPs(SNPs) (6) -----------V---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs) (6)
                    PROSITE RAS  PDB: R:1-166 UniProt: 1-188                                                                                                                                       PROSITE
           Transcript 1 (1) Exon 1.5b  PDB: R:1-37 UniProt: 1-37 Exon 1.6c  PDB: R:38-97 UniProt: 38-97                      -----------------------------------------------------Exon 1.9d        Transcript 1 (1)
           Transcript 1 (2) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exon 1.7a  PDB: R:97-150 UniProt: 97-150              ---------------- Transcript 1 (2)
                1bkd R    1 MTEYKLVVVGAGGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFVDEYDPTIEDSYRKQVVIDGETCLLDILDTAGQEEYSAMRDQYMRTGEGFLCVFAINNTKSFEDIHQYREQIKRVKDSDDVPMVLVGNKCDLAARTVESRQAQDLARSYGIPYIETSAKTRQGVEDAFYTLVREIRQH  166
                                    10        20        30        40        50        60        70        80        90       100       110       120       130       140       150       160      

Chain S from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:439
 aligned with SOS1_HUMAN | Q07889 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:1333

    Alignment length:477
                                   577       587       597       607       617       627       637       647       657       667       677       687       697       707       717       727       737       747       757       767       777       787       797       807       817       827       837       847       857       867       877       887       897       907       917       927       937       947       957       967       977       987       997      1007      1017      1027      1037       
          SOS1_HUMAN    568 RLPSADVYRFAEPDSEENIIFEENMQPKAGIPIIKAGTVIKLIERLTYHMYADPNFVRTFLTTYRSFCKPQELLSLIIERFEIPEPEPTEADRIAIENGDQPLSAELKRFRKEYIQPVQLRVLNVCRHWVEHHFYDFERDAYLLQRMEEFIGTVRGKAMKKWVESITKIIQRKKIARDNGPGHNITFQSSPPTVEWHISRPGHIETFDLLTLHPIEIARQLTLLESDLYRAVQPSELVGSVWTKEDKEINSPNLLKMIRHTTNLTLWFEKCIVETENLEERVAVVSRIIEILQVFQELNNFNGVLEVVSAMNSSPVYRLDHTFEQIPSRQKKILEEAHELSEDHYKKYLAKLRSINPPCVPFFGIYLTNILKTEEGNPEVLKRHGKELINFSKRRKVAEITGEIQQYQNQPYCLRVESDIKRFFENLNPMGNSMEKEFTDYLFNKSLEIEPRNPKPLPRFPKKYSYPLKSPGVRPSN 1044
               SCOP domains d1bkds_ S: Son of seven      less protein homolog 1 (sos-1)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1bkdS01 S:568-741,S:931      -973 Son of sevenless (SoS) protein Chain: S domain 1                                                                                                      -------1bkdS02 S:759-930,S:974-1043 Son of sevenless (Sos) protein Chain                                                                                                           1bkdS01 S:568-741,S:931-973                1bkdS02 S:759-930,S:974-1043 Son of sevenless (Sos) protein Chain     - CATH domains
               Pfam domains --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author .......................------.........hhhhhhhhh......hhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhh.....----------------------......hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh........hhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh..----------.............................hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.....................hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh....hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhh........hhhhhh..hhhhhhhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhhhhhhh.........hhhhhhhhhhhh....eeee..eeee.hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.........hhhhhhhh.........hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh............................ Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) -V-----------------------------------------------------I------------------------------------------------------------------------------H-----T--------------------L---F--------------------------------------------------T-------------------------------------------------------------K-----------------------------------------------R----------------------------------------------------------------------------------R---------------------------------S--------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                PROSITE (1) -----------------------------RASGEF_NTER  PDB: S:597-741 UniProt: 597-741                                                                                                     --------------------------------------RASGEF_CAT  PDB: S:780-1019 UniProt: 780-1019                                                                                                                                                                                                   ------------------------- PROSITE (1)
                PROSITE (2) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RASGEF  PDB: S:927-960            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PROSITE (2)
                 Transcript --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Transcript
                1bkd S  568 RLPSADVYRFAEPDSEENIIFEE------GIPIIKAGTVIKLIERLTYHMYADPNFVRTFLTTYRSFCKPQELLSLIIERFEIPEP----------------------RFRKEYIQPVQLRVLNVCRHWVEHHFYDFERDAYLLQRMEEFIGTVRGKAMKKWVESITKIIQRKK----------ITFQSSPPTVEWHISRPGHIETFDLLTLHPIEIARQLTLLESDLYRAVQPSELVGSVWTKEDKEINSPNLLKMIRHTTNLTLWFEKCIVETENLEERVAVVSRIIEILQVFQELNNFNGVLEVVSAMNSSPVYRLDHTFEQIPSRQKKILEEAHELSEDHYKKYLAKLRSINPPCVPFFGIYLTNILKTEEGNPEVLKRHGKELINFSKRRKVAEITGEIQQYQNQPYCLRVESDIKRFFENLNPMGNSMEKEFTDYLFNKSLEIEPRNPKPLPRFPKKYSYPLKSPGVRPSN 1044
                                   577       587  |    597       607       617       627       637       647     |   -         -       677       687       697       707       717       727       737   |     -    |  757       767       777       787       797       807       817       827       837       847       857       867       877       887       897       907       917       927       937       947       957       967       977       987       997      1007      1017      1027      1037       
                                                590    597                                                     653                    676                                                              741        752                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (3, 3)

Asymmetric Unit
(-)
Class: Alpha Beta (26913)

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 1BKD)

(-) Gene Ontology  (97, 110)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain R   (RASH_HUMAN | P01112)
molecular function
    GO:0005525    GTP binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
    GO:0003924    GTPase activity    Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + phosphate.
    GO:0000166    nucleotide binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the ribose or deoxyribose.
    GO:0008022    protein C-terminus binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a protein C-terminus, the end of any peptide chain at which the 1-carboxy function of a constituent amino acid is not attached in peptide linkage to another amino-acid residue.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
biological process
    GO:0038128    ERBB2 signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptors on the surface of a cell, where the signal is transmitted by ERBB2. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. ERBB2 receptors are themselves unable to bind to ligands, but act as a signal-amplifying tyrosine kinase within a heterodimeric pair.
    GO:0038095    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to an Fc-epsilon receptor on the surface of a signal-receiving cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The Fc portion of an immunoglobulin is its C-terminal constant region.
    GO:0000165    MAPK cascade    An intracellular protein kinase cascade containing at least a MAPK, a MAPKK and a MAP3K. The cascade can also contain two additional tiers: the upstream MAP4K and the downstream MAP Kinase-activated kinase (MAPKAPK). The kinases in each tier phosphorylate and activate the kinases in the downstream tier to transmit a signal within a cell.
    GO:0007265    Ras protein signal transduction    A series of molecular signals within the cell that are mediated by a member of the Ras superfamily of proteins switching to a GTP-bound active state.
    GO:0050852    T cell receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a T cell.
    GO:0042088    T-helper 1 type immune response    An immune response which is associated with resistance to intracellular bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, and pathological conditions such as arthritis, and which is typically orchestrated by the production of particular cytokines by T-helper 1 cells, most notably interferon-gamma, IL-2, and lymphotoxin.
    GO:0009887    animal organ morphogenesis    Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.
    GO:0006915    apoptotic process    A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an execution phase. The execution phase is the last step of an apoptotic process, and is typically characterized by rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.
    GO:0007411    axon guidance    The chemotaxis process that directs the migration of an axon growth cone to a specific target site in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.
    GO:0007569    cell aging    An aging process that has as participant a cell after a cell has stopped dividing. Cell aging may occur when a cell has temporarily stopped dividing through cell cycle arrest (GO:0007050) or when a cell has permanently stopped dividing, in which case it is undergoing cellular senescence (GO:0090398). May precede cell death (GO:0008219) and succeed cell maturation (GO:0048469).
    GO:0007050    cell cycle arrest    A regulatory process that halts progression through the cell cycle during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, M).
    GO:0008283    cell proliferation    The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
    GO:0007166    cell surface receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by activation of a receptor on the surface of a cell. The pathway begins with binding of an extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor, or for receptors that signal in the absence of a ligand, by ligand-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0090398    cellular senescence    A cell aging process stimulated in response to cellular stress, whereby normal cells lose the ability to divide through irreversible cell cycle arrest.
    GO:0006935    chemotaxis    The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).
    GO:0042832    defense response to protozoan    Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a protozoan that act to protect the cell or organism.
    GO:0006897    endocytosis    A vesicle-mediated transport process in which cells take up external materials or membrane constituents by the invagination of a small region of the plasma membrane to form a new membrane-bounded vesicle.
    GO:0048013    ephrin receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an ephrin receptor binding to an ephrin.
    GO:0007173    epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to the tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR (ERBB1) on the surface of a cell. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0097193    intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals in which an intracellular signal is conveyed to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway starts with reception of an intracellular signal (e.g. DNA damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress etc.), and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. The intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway is crucially regulated by permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOMP).
    GO:0050900    leukocyte migration    The movement of a leukocyte within or between different tissues and organs of the body.
    GO:0007093    mitotic cell cycle checkpoint    A cell cycle checkpoint that ensures accurate chromosome replication and segregation by preventing progression through a mitotic cell cycle until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
    GO:0034260    negative regulation of GTPase activity    Any process that stops or reduces the rate of GTP hydrolysis by a GTPase.
    GO:0008285    negative regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0010629    negative regulation of gene expression    Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0043524    negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process in neurons.
    GO:0045740    positive regulation of DNA replication    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA replication.
    GO:0070374    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the ERK1 and ERK2 cascade.
    GO:0043547    positive regulation of GTPase activity    Any process that activates or increases the activity of a GTPase.
    GO:0046330    positive regulation of JNK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the JNK cascade.
    GO:0043406    positive regulation of MAP kinase activity    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of MAP kinase activity.
    GO:0043410    positive regulation of MAPK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the MAPK cascade.
    GO:0046579    positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of Ras protein signal transduction.
    GO:2000251    positive regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of actin cytoskeleton reorganization.
    GO:0030335    positive regulation of cell migration    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.
    GO:0008284    positive regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0050679    positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of epithelial cell proliferation.
    GO:0010628    positive regulation of gene expression    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA or circRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
    GO:0032729    positive regulation of interferon-gamma production    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
    GO:2000630    positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of miRNA metabolic process.
    GO:0001934    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups to amino acids within a protein.
    GO:1900029    positive regulation of ruffle assembly    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ruffle assembly.
    GO:0045944    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0090303    positive regulation of wound healing    Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.
    GO:0051291    protein heterooligomerization    The process of creating protein oligomers, compounds composed of a small number, usually between three and ten, of component monomers that are not all identical. Oligomers may be formed by the polymerization of a number of monomers or the depolymerization of a large protein polymer.
    GO:0048169    regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity    A process that modulates long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity, the ability of neuronal synapses to change long-term as circumstances require. Long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity generally involves increase or decrease in actual synapse numbers.
    GO:0007165    signal transduction    The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
    GO:0007264    small GTPase mediated signal transduction    Any series of molecular signals in which a small monomeric GTPase relays one or more of the signals.
    GO:0035176    social behavior    Behavior directed towards society, or taking place between members of the same species. Occurs predominantly, or only, in individuals that are part of a group.
    GO:0002223    stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway    Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of binding to a C-type lectin receptor capable of cellular activation.
cellular component
    GO:0005794    Golgi apparatus    A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions.
    GO:0000139    Golgi membrane    The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments of the Golgi apparatus.
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0043231    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle    Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.
    GO:0016020    membrane    A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.
    GO:0005634    nucleus    A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.
    GO:0048471    perinuclear region of cytoplasm    Cytoplasm situated near, or occurring around, the nucleus.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.

Chain S   (SOS1_HUMAN | Q07889)
molecular function
    GO:0003677    DNA binding    Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
    GO:0005096    GTPase activator activity    Binds to and increases the activity of a GTPase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP.
    GO:0005088    Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity    Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with a GTPase of the Ras superfamily. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase.
    GO:0005089    Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity    Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with a GTPase of the Rho family. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase.
    GO:0017124    SH3 domain binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a SH3 domain (Src homology 3) of a protein, small protein modules containing approximately 50 amino acid residues found in a great variety of intracellular or membrane-associated proteins.
    GO:0005085    guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity    Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with a GTPase. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase.
    GO:0005515    protein binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with any protein or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
    GO:0046982    protein heterodimerization activity    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a nonidentical protein to form a heterodimer.
biological process
    GO:0001782    B cell homeostasis    The process of regulating the proliferation and elimination of B cells such that the total number of B cells within a whole or part of an organism is stable over time in the absence of an outside stimulus.
    GO:0038128    ERBB2 signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptors on the surface of a cell, where the signal is transmitted by ERBB2. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. ERBB2 receptors are themselves unable to bind to ligands, but act as a signal-amplifying tyrosine kinase within a heterodimeric pair.
    GO:0038095    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to an Fc-epsilon receptor on the surface of a signal-receiving cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The Fc portion of an immunoglobulin is its C-terminal constant region.
    GO:0000165    MAPK cascade    An intracellular protein kinase cascade containing at least a MAPK, a MAPKK and a MAP3K. The cascade can also contain two additional tiers: the upstream MAP4K and the downstream MAP Kinase-activated kinase (MAPKAPK). The kinases in each tier phosphorylate and activate the kinases in the downstream tier to transmit a signal within a cell.
    GO:0007265    Ras protein signal transduction    A series of molecular signals within the cell that are mediated by a member of the Ras superfamily of proteins switching to a GTP-bound active state.
    GO:0007411    axon guidance    The chemotaxis process that directs the migration of an axon growth cone to a specific target site in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.
    GO:0048514    blood vessel morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structures of blood vessels are generated and organized. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.
    GO:0003209    cardiac atrium morphogenesis    The process in which the cardiac atrium is generated and organized. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.
    GO:0007173    epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to the tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR (ERBB1) on the surface of a cell. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0061029    eyelid development in camera-type eye    The progression of the eyelid in a camera-type eye from its formation to the mature state. The eyelid is a membranous cover that helps protect and lubricate the eye.
    GO:0001942    hair follicle development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hair follicle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A hair follicle is a tube-like opening in the epidermis where the hair shaft develops and into which the sebaceous glands open.
    GO:0003007    heart morphogenesis    The developmental process in which the heart is generated and organized. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
    GO:0061384    heart trabecula morphogenesis    The process of shaping a trabecula in the heart. A trabecula is a small, often microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod, which generally has a mechanical function. Trabecula are usually but not necessarily, composed of dense collagenous tissue.
    GO:0008286    insulin receptor signaling pathway    The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the insulin receptor binding to insulin.
    GO:0050900    leukocyte migration    The movement of a leukocyte within or between different tissues and organs of the body.
    GO:0002260    lymphocyte homeostasis    The process of regulating the proliferation and elimination of lymphocytes such that the total number of lymphocytes within a whole or part of an organism is stable over time in the absence of an outside stimulus.
    GO:1904693    midbrain morphogenesis    The developmental process by which a midbrain is generated and organized.
    GO:0035264    multicellular organism growth    The increase in size or mass of an entire multicellular organism, as opposed to cell growth.
    GO:0048011    neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a neurotrophin to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where the receptor possesses tyrosine kinase activity, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
    GO:0060021    palate development    The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of the palate from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure. The palate is the partition that separates the nasal and oral cavities.
    GO:0003344    pericardium morphogenesis    The process in which the anatomical structure of the pericardium is generated and organized.
    GO:0043547    positive regulation of GTPase activity    Any process that activates or increases the activity of a GTPase.
    GO:0043065    positive regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0045742    positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway activity.
    GO:0051057    positive regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of small GTPase mediated signal transduction.
    GO:0035023    regulation of Rho protein signal transduction    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of Rho protein signal transduction.
    GO:0033081    regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
    GO:0042129    regulation of T cell proliferation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T cell proliferation.
    GO:2000973    regulation of pro-B cell differentiation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of pro-B cell differentiation.
    GO:0051056    regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of small GTPase mediated signal transduction.
    GO:0007165    signal transduction    The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
    GO:0007264    small GTPase mediated signal transduction    Any series of molecular signals in which a small monomeric GTPase relays one or more of the signals.
    GO:0007296    vitellogenesis    The production of yolk. Yolk is a mixture of materials used for embryonic nutrition.
cellular component
    GO:0005829    cytosol    The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes.
    GO:0005622    intracellular    The living contents of a cell; the matter contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane, usually taken to exclude large vacuoles and masses of secretory or ingested material. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm.
    GO:0043025    neuronal cell body    The portion of a neuron that includes the nucleus, but excludes cell projections such as axons and dendrites.
    GO:0005886    plasma membrane    The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
    GO:0014069    postsynaptic density of dendrite    An electron dense network of proteins within and adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite of asymetric synapses. Its major components include neurotransmitter receptors and the proteins that spatially and functionally organize them such as anchoring and scaffolding molecules, signaling enzymes and cytoskeletal components.

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 Related Entries

(-) Entries Sharing at Least One Protein Chain (UniProt ID)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
        RASH_HUMAN | P01112121p 1aa9 1agp 1clu 1crp 1crq 1crr 1ctq 1gnp 1gnq 1gnr 1he8 1iaq 1ioz 1jah 1jai 1k8r 1lf0 1lf5 1lfd 1nvu 1nvv 1nvw 1nvx 1p2s 1p2t 1p2u 1p2v 1plj 1plk 1pll 1q21 1qra 1rvd 1wq1 1xcm 1xd2 1xj0 1zvq 1zw6 221p 2c5l 2ce2 2cl0 2cl6 2cl7 2clc 2cld 2evw 2gdp 2lcf 2lwi 2n42 2n46 2q21 2quz 2rga 2rgb 2rgc 2rgd 2rge 2rgg 2uzi 2vh5 2x1v 3ddc 3i3s 3k8y 3k9l 3k9n 3kkm 3kkn 3kud 3l8y 3l8z 3lbh 3lbi 3lbn 3lo5 3oiu 3oiv 3oiw 3rry 3rrz 3rs0 3rs2 3rs3 3rs4 3rs5 3rs7 3rsl 3rso 3tgp 421p 4dlr 4dls 4dlt 4dlu 4dlv 4dlw 4dlx 4dly 4dlz 4dst 4dsu 4efl 4efm 4efn 4g0n 4g3x 4k81 4l9s 4l9w 4nyi 4nyj 4nym 4q21 4rsg 4uru 4urv 4urw 4urx 4ury 4urz 4us0 4us1 4us2 4xvq 4xvr 521p 5b2z 5b30 5e95 5p21 621p 6q21 721p 821p
        SOS1_HUMAN | Q078891awe 1dbh 1nvu 1nvv 1nvw 1nvx 1q9c 1xd2 1xd4 1xdv 2ii0 3ksy 4nyi 4nyj 4nym 4uru 4urv 4urw 4urx 4ury 4urz 4us0 4us1 4us2

(-) Related Entries Specified in the PDB File

(no "Related Entries Specified in the PDB File" available for 1BKD)