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(-) Description

Title :  HUMAN OBESITY PROTEIN, LEPTIN
 
Authors :  F. Zhang, J. M. Beals, S. L. Briggs, D. K. Clawson, J. -P. Wery, R. W. Schev
Date :  31 Oct 97  (Deposition) - 25 Nov 98  (Release) - 09 May 12  (Revision)
Method :  X-RAY DIFFRACTION
Resolution :  2.40
Chains :  Asym. Unit :  A
Biol. Unit 1:  A  (1x)
Biol. Unit 2:  A  (3x)
Keywords :  Helical Cytokine, Hematopoietic Factor, Diabetes, Obesity, Cytokine (Keyword Search: [Gene Ontology, PubMed, Web (Google))
 
Reference :  F. Zhang, M. B. Basinski, J. M. Beals, S. L. Briggs, L. M. Churgay, D. K. Clawson, R. D. Dimarchi, T. C. Furman, J. E. Hale, H. M. Hsiung, B. E. Schoner, D. P. Smith, X. Y. Zhang, J. P. Wery, R. W. Schevitz
Crystal Structure Of The Obese Protein Leptin-E100.
Nature V. 387 206 1997
PubMed-ID: 9144295  |  Reference-DOI: 10.1038/387206A0
(for further references see the PDB file header)

(-) Compounds

Molecule 1 - OBESITY PROTEIN
    Cell LineBL21
    ChainsA
    EngineeredYES
    Expression SystemESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3)
    Expression System Cellular LocationCYTOPLASM
    Expression System PlasmidBL21
    Expression System StrainBL21 (DE3)
    Expression System Taxid469008
    GeneOBESE GENE
    MutationYES
    Organism CommonHUMAN
    Organism ScientificHOMO SAPIENS
    Organism Taxid9606
    SynonymLEPTIN
    TissueADIPOSE

 Structural Features

(-) Chains, Units

  1
Asymmetric Unit A
Biological Unit 1 (1x)A
Biological Unit 2 (3x)A

Summary Information (see also Sequences/Alignments below)

(-) Ligands, Modified Residues, Ions  (0, 0)

(no "Ligand,Modified Residues,Ions" information available for 1AX8)

(-) Sites  (0, 0)

(no "Site" information available for 1AX8)

(-) SS Bonds  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit
No.Residues
1A:96 -A:146

(-) Cis Peptide Bonds  (0, 0)

(no "Cis Peptide Bond" information available for 1AX8)

 Sequence-Structure Mapping

(-) SAPs(SNPs)/Variants  (4, 4)

Asymmetric Unit (4, 4)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_004197V94MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism17151919AV73M
2UniProtVAR_075144D100YLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)724159998AD79Y
3UniProtVAR_008094R105WLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)104894023AR84W
4UniProtVAR_011955V110MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism1800564AV89M

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 1 (4, 4)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_004197V94MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism17151919AV73M
2UniProtVAR_075144D100YLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)724159998AD79Y
3UniProtVAR_008094R105WLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)104894023AR84W
4UniProtVAR_011955V110MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism1800564AV89M

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Biological Unit 2 (4, 12)
  dbSNPPDB
No.SourceVariant IDVariantUniProt IDStatusIDChainVariant
1UniProtVAR_004197V94MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism17151919AV73M
2UniProtVAR_075144D100YLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)724159998AD79Y
3UniProtVAR_008094R105WLEP_HUMANDisease (LEPD)104894023AR84W
4UniProtVAR_011955V110MLEP_HUMANPolymorphism1800564AV89M

  SNP/SAP Summary Statistics (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

(-) PROSITE Motifs  (0, 0)

(no "PROSITE Motif" information available for 1AX8)

(-) Exons   (2, 2)

Asymmetric Unit (2, 2)
 ENSEMBLUniProtKBPDB
No.Transcript IDExonExon IDGenome LocationLengthIDLocationLengthCountLocationLength
1.1ENST000003088681ENSE00001422382chr7:127881337-12788135923LEP_HUMAN-00--
1.2ENST000003088682ENSE00001303768chr7:127892044-127892215172LEP_HUMAN1-48481A:3-2422
1.3ENST000003088683ENSE00001208755chr7:127894457-1278976813225LEP_HUMAN49-1671191A:39-146108

(-) Sequences/Alignments

Asymmetric Unit
   Reformat: Number of residues per line =  ('0' or empty: single-line sequence representation)
  Number of residues per labelling interval =   
  UniProt sequence: complete  aligned part    
   Show mapping: SCOP domains CATH domains Pfam domains Secondary structure (by author)
SAPs(SNPs) PROSITE motifs Exons
(details for a mapped element are shown in a popup box when the mouse pointer rests over it)
Chain A from PDB  Type:PROTEIN  Length:130
 aligned with LEP_HUMAN | P41159 from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot  Length:167

    Alignment length:144
                                    33        43        53        63        73        83        93       103       113       123       133       143       153       163    
            LEP_HUMAN    24 IQKVQDDTKTLIKTIVTRINDISHTQSVSSKQKVTGLDFIPGLHPILTLSKMDQTLAVYQQILTSMPSRNVIQISNDLENLRDLLHVLAFSKSCHLPWASGLETLDSLGGVLEASGYSTEVVALSRLQGSLQDMLWQLDLSPGC 167
               SCOP domains d1ax8a_ A: Leptin (obe              sity protein)                                                                                                SCOP domains
               CATH domains 1ax8A00 A:3-146  [code              =1.20.1250.10, no name defined]                                                                              CATH domains
               Pfam domains ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pfam domains
         Sec.struct. author .hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh.--------------............hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh...........hhhhhhhhhh....hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh... Sec.struct. author
                 SAPs(SNPs) ----------------------------------------------------------------------M-----Y----W----M--------------------------------------------------------- SAPs(SNPs)
                    PROSITE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PROSITE
               Transcript 1 Exon 1.2  PDB: A:3-24    Exon 1.3  PDB: A:39-146 UniProt: 49-167 [INCOMPLETE]                                                                    Transcript 1
                 1ax8 A   3 IQKVQDDTKTLIKTIVTRINDI--------------LDFIPGLHPILTLSKMDQTLAVYQQILTSMPSRNVIQISNDLENLRDLLHVLAFSKSCHLPEASGLETLDSLGGVLEASGYSTEVVALSRLQGSLQDMLWQLDLSPGC 146
                                    12        22 |       -      | 42        52        62        72        82        92       102       112       122       132       142    
                                                24             39                                                                                                           

   Legend:   → Mismatch (orange background)
  - → Gap (green background, '-', border residues have a numbering label)
    → Modified Residue (blue background, lower-case, 'x' indicates undefined single-letter code, labelled with number + name)
  x → Chemical Group (purple background, 'x', labelled with number + name, e.g. ACE or NH2)
  extra numbering lines below/above indicate numbering irregularities and modified residue names etc., number ends below/above '|'

 Classification and Annotation

(-) SCOP Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) CATH Domains  (1, 1)

Asymmetric Unit

(-) Pfam Domains  (0, 0)

(no "Pfam Domain" information available for 1AX8)

(-) Gene Ontology  (107, 107)

Asymmetric Unit(hide GO term definitions)
Chain A   (LEP_HUMAN | P41159)
molecular function
    GO:0008083    growth factor activity    The function that stimulates a cell to grow or proliferate. Most growth factors have other actions besides the induction of cell growth or proliferation.
    GO:0005179    hormone activity    The action characteristic of a hormone, any substance formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells in the same organism, upon which it has a specific regulatory action. The term was originally applied to agents with a stimulatory physiological action in vertebrate animals (as opposed to a chalone, which has a depressant action). Usage is now extended to regulatory compounds in lower animals and plants, and to synthetic substances having comparable effects; all bind receptors and trigger some biological process.
    GO:0051428    peptide hormone receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with a receptor for peptide hormones.
    GO:0005102    receptor binding    Interacting selectively and non-covalently with one or more specific sites on a receptor molecule, a macromolecule that undergoes combination with a hormone, neurotransmitter, drug or intracellular messenger to initiate a change in cell function.
biological process
    GO:0030217    T cell differentiation    The process in which a precursor cell type acquires characteristics of a more mature T-cell. A T cell is a type of lymphocyte whose definin characteristic is the expression of a T cell receptor complex.
    GO:1990051    activation of protein kinase C activity    Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme protein kinase C.
    GO:0060612    adipose tissue development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of adipose tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Adipose tissue is specialized tissue that is used to store fat.
    GO:0008343    adult feeding behavior    Feeding behavior in a fully developed and mature organism.
    GO:0001525    angiogenesis    Blood vessel formation when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.
    GO:0008206    bile acid metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving bile acids, any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile, where they are present as the sodium salts of their amides with glycine or taurine.
    GO:0098868    bone growth    The increase in size or mass of a bone that contributes to the shaping of that bone.
    GO:0035630    bone mineralization involved in bone maturation    The deposition of hydroxyapatite, involved in the progression of the skeleton from its formation to its mature state.
    GO:0003300    cardiac muscle hypertrophy    The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart muscle due to an increase in size of cardiac muscle cells without cell division.
    GO:0071298    cellular response to L-ascorbic acid    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) stimulus.
    GO:0044320    cellular response to leptin stimulus    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a leptin stimulus. Leptin is a hormone manufactured primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue, and the level of circulating leptin is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body. It plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism.
    GO:0071300    cellular response to retinoic acid    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a retinoic acid stimulus.
    GO:0021954    central nervous system neuron development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron whose cell body is located in the central nervous system, from initial commitment of the cell to a neuronal fate, to the fully functional differentiated neuron.
    GO:0008203    cholesterol metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
    GO:0007623    circadian rhythm    Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
    GO:0042755    eating behavior    The specific behavior of an organism relating to the intake of food, any substance (usually solid) that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue.
    GO:0006112    energy reserve metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways by which a cell derives energy from stored compounds such as fats or glycogen.
    GO:0006635    fatty acid beta-oxidation    A fatty acid oxidation process that results in the complete oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid. Fatty acid beta-oxidation begins with the addition of coenzyme A to a fatty acid, and occurs by successive cycles of reactions during each of which the fatty acid is shortened by a two-carbon fragment removed as acetyl coenzyme A; the cycle continues until only two or three carbons remain (as acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA respectively).
    GO:0009062    fatty acid catabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a fatty acid, any of the aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that can be liberated by hydrolysis from naturally occurring fats and oils. Fatty acids are predominantly straight-chain acids of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated; branched fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids also occur, and very long chain acids of over 30 carbons are found in waxes.
    GO:0007565    female pregnancy    The set of physiological processes that allow an embryo or foetus to develop within the body of a female animal. It covers the time from fertilization of a female ovum by a male spermatozoon until birth.
    GO:0042593    glucose homeostasis    Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of glucose within an organism or cell.
    GO:0006006    glucose metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose, the aldohexose gluco-hexose. D-glucose is dextrorotatory and is sometimes known as dextrose; it is an important source of energy for living organisms and is found free as well as combined in homo- and hetero-oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
    GO:0006114    glycerol biosynthetic process    The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycerol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, a sweet, hygroscopic, viscous liquid, widely distributed in nature as a constituent of many lipids.
    GO:0042445    hormone metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving any hormone, naturally occurring substances secreted by specialized cells that affects the metabolism or behavior of other cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone.
    GO:0030073    insulin secretion    The regulated release of proinsulin from secretory granules (B granules) in the B cells of the pancreas; accompanied by cleavage of proinsulin to form mature insulin.
    GO:0072604    interleukin-6 secretion    The regulated release of interleukin-6 from a cell.
    GO:0072606    interleukin-8 secretion    The regulated release of interleukin-8 from a cell.
    GO:0050892    intestinal absorption    Any process in which nutrients are taken up from the contents of the intestine.
    GO:0035556    intracellular signal transduction    The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell.
    GO:0033210    leptin-mediated signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of leptin to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. Leptin is a hormone manufactured primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue, and the level of circulating leptin is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body.
    GO:0050901    leukocyte tethering or rolling    Transient adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Carbohydrates on circulating leukocytes bind selectins on the vessel wall causing the leukocytes to slow down and roll along the inner surface of the vessel wall. During this rolling motion, transitory bonds are formed and broken between selectins and their ligands. Typically the first step in cellular extravasation (the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection).
    GO:0006629    lipid metabolic process    The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
    GO:0043066    negative regulation of apoptotic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
    GO:0032099    negative regulation of appetite    Any process that reduces appetite.
    GO:0038108    negative regulation of appetite by leptin-mediated signaling pathway    A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of leptin to a receptor on the surface of a cell, which reduces appetite, the desire or physical craving for food.
    GO:0010507    negative regulation of autophagy    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of autophagy. Autophagy is the process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm.
    GO:0061037    negative regulation of cartilage development    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of cartilage development, the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage is a connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.
    GO:0070093    negative regulation of glucagon secretion    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of glucagon.
    GO:0046325    negative regulation of glucose import    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the import of the hexose monosaccharide glucose into a cell or organelle.
    GO:2000486    negative regulation of glutamine transport    Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glutamine transport.
    GO:0010888    negative regulation of lipid storage    Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.
    GO:0009892    negative regulation of metabolic process    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.
    GO:0000122    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
    GO:0045906    negative regulation of vasoconstriction    Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasoconstriction.
    GO:0001542    ovulation from ovarian follicle    The process leading to the rupture of the follicle, releasing the centrally located oocyte into the oviduct. An example of this is found in Mus musculus.
    GO:0001890    placenta development    The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The placenta is an organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin.
    GO:0046427    positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity.
    GO:0043410    positive regulation of MAPK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the MAPK cascade.
    GO:2000366    positive regulation of STAT protein import into nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of STAT protein import into nucleus.
    GO:0042102    positive regulation of T cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of T cell proliferation.
    GO:0032008    positive regulation of TOR signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of TOR signaling.
    GO:0008284    positive regulation of cell proliferation    Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.
    GO:0001819    positive regulation of cytokine production    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of production of a cytokine.
    GO:0048639    positive regulation of developmental growth    Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of developmental growth.
    GO:1904651    positive regulation of fat cell apoptotic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fat cell apoptotic process.
    GO:0046881    positive regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of follicle-stimulating hormone.
    GO:2000491    positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hepatic stellate cell activation.
    GO:0046628    positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway    Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of insulin receptor signaling.
    GO:0043270    positive regulation of ion transport    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
    GO:0033686    positive regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of luteinizing hormone.
    GO:0045639    positive regulation of myeloid cell differentiation    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myeloid cell differentiation.
    GO:1900745    positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of p38MAPK cascade.
    GO:0035360    positive regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway.
    GO:0014068    positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade.
    GO:0042307    positive regulation of protein import into nucleus    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of movement of proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.
    GO:0051897    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase B signaling, a series of reactions mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B.
    GO:2000379    positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process    Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of reactive oxygen species metabolic process.
    GO:0032310    prostaglandin secretion    The regulated release of a prostaglandin, any of a group of biologically active metabolites which contain a cyclopentane ring, from a cell or a tissue.
    GO:0045765    regulation of angiogenesis    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of angiogenesis.
    GO:0008217    regulation of blood pressure    Any process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the circulatory system. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
    GO:0046850    regulation of bone remodeling    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of bone remodeling, the processes of bone formation and resorption that combine to maintain skeletal integrity.
    GO:0090335    regulation of brown fat cell differentiation    Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of brown fat cell differentiation. Brown fat cell differentiation is the process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a brown adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Brown adipocytes contain multiple small droplets of triglycerides and a high number of mitochondria.
    GO:0051726    regulation of cell cycle    Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.
    GO:1900015    regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response.
    GO:0001936    regulation of endothelial cell proliferation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.
    GO:0045598    regulation of fat cell differentiation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.
    GO:0006111    regulation of gluconeogenesis    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
    GO:0050796    regulation of insulin secretion    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of insulin.
    GO:0030300    regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of absorption of cholesterol into the blood, and the exclusion of other sterols from absorption.
    GO:0060587    regulation of lipoprotein lipid oxidation    Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of lipoprotein lipid oxidation. Lipoprotein lipid oxidation is the modification of a lipoprotein by oxidation of the lipid group.
    GO:0019222    regulation of metabolic process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.
    GO:0032814    regulation of natural killer cell activation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of natural killer cell activation.
    GO:0042269    regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity.
    GO:0032817    regulation of natural killer cell proliferation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of natural killer cell proliferation.
    GO:0050999    regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity    Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme nitric-oxide synthase.
    GO:1900180    regulation of protein localization to nucleus    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.
    GO:0001932    regulation of protein phosphorylation    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of addition of phosphate groups into an amino acid in a protein.
    GO:0050810    regulation of steroid biosynthetic process    Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of steroids, compounds with a 1,2,cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus.
    GO:0014823    response to activity    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus.
    GO:0002021    response to dietary excess    The physiological process in which dietary excess is sensed by the central nervous system, resulting in a reduction in food intake and increased energy expenditure.
    GO:0032355    response to estradiol    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of stimulus by estradiol, a C18 steroid hormone hydroxylated at C3 and C17 that acts as a potent estrogen.
    GO:0045471    response to ethanol    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ethanol stimulus.
    GO:0001666    response to hypoxia    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
    GO:0032868    response to insulin    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
    GO:0007584    response to nutrient    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nutrient stimulus.
    GO:0031667    response to nutrient levels    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus reflecting the presence, absence, or concentration of nutrients.
    GO:0033197    response to vitamin E    Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a vitamin E stimulus.
    GO:0019953    sexual reproduction    A reproduction process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. It occurs both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: in multicellular eukaryotic organisms, an individual is created anew; in prokaryotes, the initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) originating from two different individuals (parents) join up so that homologous sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. After the new recombinant chromosome is formed, it is passed on to progeny.
    GO:0007165    signal transduction    The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
    GO:0007260    tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein    The process of introducing a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
cellular component
    GO:0005737    cytoplasm    All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
    GO:0005576    extracellular region    The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.
    GO:0005615    extracellular space    That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid.

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